AP US History

Unit 2 Study Guides

The American Revolution



Chapter 7 Study Guide

The Road to Revolution


The Deep Roots of Revolution

§  What political philosophies contributed to the eventual American Revolution?


Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances & The Merits and Menace of Mercantilism

§  What is mercantilism and how did it contribute to tensions between the colonies and Britain? 

§  What was the purpose of the Navigation Laws (aka Navigation Acts)?


The Stamp Tax Uproar

§  How did high levels of British debt guide its policies toward the colonies? 

§  Justify the Stamp Act from Grenville’s perspective. (including virtual representation)

§  Why did Americans object to Grenville’s policies?


Forced Repeal of the Stamp Act

§  What is the significance of the Stamp Act Congress?

§  What methods did colonists use to protest the Stamp Act? 

§  Why did parliament repeal the Stamp Act?

§  What statement did parliament make with the Declaratory Act?


The Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston “Massacre”

§  What were the Townshend Acts of 1767?  How did colonists react?

§  What were the causes and effects of the Boston Massacre?


The Seditious Committees of Correspondence

§  What was the significance of the committees of correspondence? 


Tea Brewing in Boston

§  What motivated the Boston Tea Party?


Parliament Passes the “Intolerable Acts” (aka Coercive Acts)

§  How did parliament attempt to punish the colonists for the Tea Party?



§  Why was the First Continental Congress assembled?

§  What was The [Continental] Association?

§  How did the first bloodshed of the War for Independence come about?


Imperial Strength and Weakness & American Pluses and Minuses

§  What military advantages and disadvantages did each side posses?

§  What roles did George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and Marquis de Lafayette play?


A Thin Line of Heroes

§  Why was the American army unable to attract large numbers of dedicated soldiers?




Big Picture Questions

§  What is salutary neglect?

§  Why did salutary neglect end and how does this policy shift affect colonial America?

§  What forms of colonial resistance emerged?

§  What steps were taken to foster cooperation between the American colonies?

§  America colonists are sometimes referred to as “reluctant revolutionaries.”  Why?

§  What were the primary causes of the American Revolution and War for Independence?

§  Was the revolution inevitable or a result of British policy blunders?


Additional Topics to Cover

What is the Proclamation of 1763 and how did Pontiac's Uprising (1763) help cause it?  (p.120-121)

What was the purpose of changes in British trade policy and how did the colonists react to these changes?


Chapter 8 Study Guide 

America Secedes From The Empire


Congress Drafts George Washington

§  What leadership qualities did Washington exhibit?


Bunker Hill and Hessian Hirelings

§  What was the result of the Battle at Bunker Hill?

§  Why did King George III reject the Olive Branch petition?

§  What is the significance of the British hiring of Hessians?


Thomas Paine Preaches Common Sense & Paine and the Idea of Republicanism

§  Even though the war was underway, most Americans did not support independence.  Why?

§  What was the thesis and significance of Common Sense?

§  Define Republicanism.

§  Describe the difference between the more radical and conservative republicans.


Jefferson’s “Explanation” of Independence

§  Read and understand the Declaration of Independence.

§  What was the impact of Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence?

§  What does the evidence from the tan box on page 146 tell us?


Patriots and Loyalists, The Loyalists (Makers of America), & The Loyalist Exodus

§  “the American Revolution was a minority movement” – explain this idea

§  What motivated loyalists (Tories) to remain loyal to the crown?

§  How did Patriots (Whigs) react to Loyalists?


General Washington at Bay

§  How did Washington survive the events of 1776?

§  Do the paintings on pages 150 151 aid or hinder our understanding of history?


Burgoyne’s Blundering Invasion

§  Why did the Battle of Saratoga revive American hopes?


Revolution in Diplomacy? & The Colonial War Becomes a Wider War

§  What factors encouraged the alliance between France and the USA?

§  How did European rivalries affects America’s War for Independence?

§  How did France’s entrance into the conflict force the British to change their basic strategy in America?


Yorktown and the Final Curtain, Peace at Paris, & A New Nation Legitimized

§  What was the impact of the Battle of Yorktown?

§  How might the Treaty of Paris be seen as an American betrayal of France?

§  What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1783)? Why were the terms favorable to the US?


Varying Viewpoints:  Whose Revolution?

§  What do the various interpretations about the Revolution teach us about the study of history?


Additional Topics to Cover:

§  guerilla warfare


Discussion Questions

1.                   If you had lived during the revolution, do you think you would have been a patriot or a loyalist?  Why?

2.                   What would have happened if the colonists had lost their war for independence?

3.                   How were the colonists able to win its independence from a nation as strong as Great Britain?

4.                   Is George Washington overrated as a military leader?

5.                   What is your opinion regarding the two editorials depicting Americans as savage Indians on p.149, 160


Chapter 9 Study Guide 

The Confederation and the Constitution


The Pursuit of Equality

§  In what ways was egalitarianism on the rise during the revolutionary era?  What caused this?

§  Define “social democracy”

§  How was religion and government separated during this time?

§  How did the American revolution impact African-Americans? 

§  In which colonies was slavery abolished?

§  “the fledgling idealism of the Founding Fathers was sacrificed to political expediency.” (p. 167) Explain.

§  What is “republican motherhood?”  How did it affect women?




Constitution Making in the States

§  What precedents and traditions did state constitutions create?


Economic Crosscurrents

§  What is “economic democracy?”

§  What was the economic impact of the war on the US?


A Shaky Start Towards Union & Creating a Confederation

§  What primary challenges did Americans face in creating a national government?

§  What positive signs were evident in creating a national government?

§  Using the document on page 172, locate the Northwest territory?


The Articles of Confederation:  America’s First Constitution

§  Define confederation.

§  How was the national government weak under the Articles of Confederation?

§  What positive purposes did the Articles of Confederation serve?


Landmarks in Land Laws

§  How was the western lands issue resolved under the Articles of Confederation?

Land Ordinance of 1785

Northwest Ordinance of 1787


The World’s Ugly Duckling 

§  How powerful was the newly formed USA in international relations?

§  How was the US viewed by Great Britain, Spain, and France following the American Revolution?


The Horrid Specter of Anarchy

§  Define “anarchy.”

§  What fears did Shays’s rebellion raise?


A Convention of Demigods & Patriots in Philadelphia

§  Constitutional Convention: Who? What? When? Where? Why?

§  Using the document on p. 177, who does Hamilton consider the “few” and the “many?”


Hammering Out a Bundle of Compromises

§  Describe the large state (Virginia) plan, the small state (New Jersey), and the Great Compromise (Connecticut plan).

§  What is the 3/5 compromise?  How was slavery dealt with?

§  Review: checks and balances, federalism

§  Review the chart on page 180—Can you identify each attempt listed?


Safeguards for Conservatism

§  How did the constitution embrace democracy in some ways but limit it in others?

§  How was the memory of Shays’s Rebellion influential during the Constitutional Convention?

§  Need to differentiate between democratic and republicanism.

The Clash of Federalists and Anti-federalists

§  What were the arguments and characteristics of the federalists and anti-federalists?


The Great Debate in the States & The four Laggard States

§  Why were the federalists eventually able to defeat the anti-federalists in every state?

§  What are the Federalist Papers?  What is their present-day significance?

§  Using the map on page 184, where were the anti-federalist strongholds? Why were these areas opposed to the constitution?


A Conservative Triumph 

§  Why is the U.S. Constitution more conservative than the Articles of Confederation?


Discussion Questions

1.      Were the framers of the constitution wise to limit democracy to the extent that they did?

2.      How much should slave-owning be held against founding fathers like Washington & Jefferson?

3.      To what degree did the American Revolution change the status of African Americans and women?

4.      To what degree will the new American government embrace or realize Thomas Paine’s definition of republicanism. 

5.      How dramatically different is the United States under the constitution from the colonies under the British parliament?


AP US History

Unit 3 Study Guides

The New Nation


Chapter 10 Study Guide

Launching the New Ship of State


Growing Pains

§  Describe the United States in 1790


Washington for President

§  What attributes did Washington bring to the presidency?


The Bill of Rights

§  Which liberties did the Bill of Rights protect?

§  What was the Judiciary Act of 1789?


Hamilton Revives the Corpse of Public Credit

§  What were Hamilton’s primary goals?

§  Why were the high levels of debt a problem?

§  How did Hamilton propose to deal with the debt?

§  Why was the assumption of state debt controversial?

§  How did Hamilton gain Virginia’s support?


Customs Duties and Excise Taxes

§  Define: duties, tariffs, excise taxes, revenue

§  According to Hamilton, how was a national debt a “national blessing?”

§  How did revenue tariffs differ from protective tariffs?

§  Why did congress reject high protective tariffs?


Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank

§  What were Hamilton’s reasons for and Jefferson’s reasons against the bank?

§  Differentiate the loose or broad constructionist view of the constitution from the strict constructionist view. 

§  What’s the “elastic clause” of the US constitution?

§  What percentage of the National Bank was owned by the federal government? By private stockholders?


Mutinous Moonshiners in Pennsylvania

§  What was the Whiskey Rebellion and what was President Washington’s response?

§  Why is it significant?


The Emergence of Political Parties

§  Why did the first political parties form? 

§  Why did the Founders at Philadelphia not envision permanent parties?

§  “Ironically, in light of early suspicions about the very legitimacy of [political] parties, their competition for power has actually proved to be among the indispensable ingredients of a sound democracy” (p.197).  Explain.


The Impact of the French Revolution

§  How did the French Revolution politically polarize the United States?


Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation

§  Why did President Washington declare neutrality? Why was Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation controversial?


Embroilments with Britain

§  What role did the British have on the American frontier?

§  What is the significance of the Miami Confederacy?

§  Why were many Americans calling for another war with Britain?


Jay’s Treaty and Washington’s Farewell

§  Jay’s Treaty was one of the most unpopular treaties in US history—why?

§  What was Pinckney’s Treaty?  What motivated the Spanish to make concessions?

§  What is the significance of Washington’s retirement after two terms?


John Adams Becomes President

§  What political liabilities did Adams face as the 2nd US President?


Unofficial Fighting With France

§  Why did relations sour between the US and its former ally, France?

§  What role did the XYZ affair play?

§  Describe the “quasi war” between the US and France.


Adams Puts Patriotism Above Party

§  What was Adams policy toward France?  How did he “put patriotism above party?”


The Federalist Witch Hunt

§  Describe the Alien and Sedition Acts.

§  How were the acts a threat to democracy?


The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

§  Explain the concept of nullification as advocated by the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions.

§  What motivated Jefferson and Madison to take this position?


Federalists Versus Democratic Republicans

§  What were the key differences between the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans


Discussion Questions:

1.      What regions of the US were most likely to support Federalists?  Democratic-Republicans?  (Discuss North, South, & West)

2.      What were Washington’s greatest accomplishments as president?

3.      According to the chart on page 197, the Federalists are the predecessors of today’s Republican party and the Democratic-Republicans are the predecessors of today’s Democratic Party.  What similarities and differences do you find between these original political parties and their modern successors?


Chapter 11 Study Guide 

The Triumphs & Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic


Federalist & Republican Mudslingers

§  What mudslinging did Jefferson endure?

§  “Old ladies of Federalist families, fearing Jefferson’s election, even buried their Bibles.”  What can we learn from this?


The Jeffersonian “Revolution of 1800”

§  What important precedent did the Election of 1800 set?

§  Was the Election of 1800 truly a revolution?


Responsibility Breeds Moderation & Jeffersonian Restraint

§  Jefferson campaigned as a revolutionary but governed as a moderate: explain

§  What Federalist policies did Jefferson reverse?


The Dead Clutch of the Judiciary

§  Why were Jeffersonians so upset by the Judiciary Act of 1801 and the “midnight judges?”

§  What important precedent did Marbury vs. Madison set?  (understand judicial review)


Jefferson, a Reluctant Warrior

§  Why did Jefferson (and many Republicans) oppose a large standing army?

§  How did the Barbary pirates again force Jefferson to moderate one of his positions?


The Louisiana Godsend & Louisiana in the Long View

§  Trace the ownership of Louisiana territory from Spain to France to the US.  Why did it change hands so often in a few years?

§  What were the terms of the Louisiana Purchase?

§  Why was Jefferson, as a strict constructionist, bothered by the Louisiana Purchase?

§  What were the short and long-term consequences of the Louisiana Purchase?

§  What contributions did Lewis & Clark make?

§  Review the map on page 224, using your knowledge of US geography, how valuable was the Louisiana Purchase to the US relative to other US territorial acquisitions?


The Aaron Burr Conspiracies

§  How do the Burr conspiracies represent a potential threat to the new US?


A Precarious Neutrality

§  How did renewed warfare between Britain and France affect the US?

§  Why was impressment an insult to the US?

§  What happened to the USS Chesapeake in 1807?  Why is this significant?


The Hated Embargo

§  Why did Jefferson believe that the Embargo Act was a good way to respond to the European aggression?

§  How well did the Embargo work?  What were its political and economic effects?


Madison’s Gamble

§  How did the Non-intercourse Act and then Macon’s Bill No. 2 alter the embargo?

§  What did Madison hope that renewing trade with France would do?  What happened?


Tecumseh and the Prophet

§  Who were the “war hawks?”  What made them hawkish?

§  How were Tecumseh and the Prophet trying to counter US expansion into the trans-Appalachian West?  How did Americans link their actions to the British (and thus use them to justify war with Britain)?

§  What was the significance of the Battle of Tippecanoe?


Mr. Madison’s War

§  Why did Madison finally ask for a declaration of war?

§  How did the War of 1812 divide America?


Discussion Questions

1.      What regions most supported the War of 1812?  Did not support?

2.      Using the document on page 231, what are the three pillars?  Why does Washington believe all three are crucial to the country’s welfare?

3.      The conflict between the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans produced some of the most bitter political mud-slinging in our nation’s history.  How can political mud-slinging be harmful to our democracy?  Who, if anyone,  should be responsible for controlling this kind of campaigning? 


Chapter 12 Study Guide

The Second War for Independence and

the Upsurge of American Nationalism


On to Canada over Land and Lakes & Washington Burned and New Orleans Defended

§  What does the attempted invasion of Canada tell us about the War if 1812?

§  What is the significance of the British burning of the Capitol and Presidential mansion?

§  What is the significance of the Battle of New Orleans? (including rise of Andrew Jackson)


The Treaty of Ghent

§  Identify the terms of the peace treaty including understanding  “Status quo antebellum”


Federalist Grievances and the Hartford Convention

§  Using the Document on p. 237, which region supported the Federalist candidate?

§  What was the Hartford Convention?

§  Why was it a political disaster for the Federalist party?


Second War for American Independence

§  How might the War of 1812 be viewed as a “Second War for American Independence?”

§  How did it breed greater American independence?

§  What is the Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817?


Nascent nationalism

§  Define the concept of nationalism.  How can nationalism be a positive and negative force?

§  Why did the War of 1812 contribute to a rise in American nationalism?


The American System

§  What was the purpose and significance of the Tariff of 1816?  Why was it controversial?

§  What were the 3 components of Clay’s American System?

§  What was Henry Clay’s overall vision for his American System?

§  What debate ensued regarding funding for internal improvements?


The So-Called Era of Good Feelings

§  Why was the Monroe Administration viewed, somewhat falsely, as the “Era of Good Feelings?”


Panic of 1819 and the Curse of Hard Times

§  How did “overspeculation” help cause the panic?

§  Why was the West especially hit hard by the panic?

§  In the eyes of the public, who or what was to blame for the depression?


Growing Pains of the West

§  What “pains” were confronted as the western boom began?


Slavery and the Sectional Balance and the Uneasy Missouri Compromise

§  What was the Tallmadge amendment?

§  Why was the Senate such an important institution for the South?

§  How was slavery becoming a divisive sectional issue?

§  What is the Missouri Compromise (Compromise of 1820)?

§  Using the map on page 247, what was the future of slavery in the US territories held at the time?  Which section of the US would be most pleased by this?


John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism And Dikes Against Democratic Excesses

§  How did Chief Justice John Marshall increase federal power?

§  Define: “judicial federalism” (outside information needed)

§  What is the significance/precedent of the following Supreme Court rulings:

McCulloch v. Maryland

Gibbons v. Ogden

Fletcher v. Peck

Dartmouth College v. Woodward


Sharing Oregon  and Acquiring Florida

§  What foreign policy successes were negotiated during Monroe’s administration?

§  1 Treaty, 3 names:  What was the Florida Purchase Treaty, Transcontinental Treaty, Adams-Onis Treaty?  (note: this is all the same treaty)


The Menace of Monarchy, Monroe and His Doctrine & Monroe’s Doctrine Appraised

§  What was the Monroe Doctrine? 

§  How was the Monroe Doctrine a response to international events and to the “menace of monarchy?”

§  What is the long-term significance of the Monroe Doctrine?


Discussion Questions:

1.      In retrospect, was Madison’s decision to go to War with Britain a mistake?

2.      How was the time period discussed in this chapter influential in helping the US become a strong and united nation?

3.      What was John Marshall’s legacy as Chief Justice is relation to federalism?

4.      How was the Monroe Doctrine an expression of post-War of 1812 nationalism?


Chapter 13 Study Guide

The Rise of Mass Democracy


The Corrupt Bargain

§  What was the outcome of the Election of 1824?

§  Why did Jackson supporters view the John Quincy Adams election as a “corrupt bargain?” 


A Yankee Misfit

§  How did President Adams antagonize Southerners? Westerners?


Going “Whole Hog” for Jackson in 1828 and “Old Hickory” As President

§  Describe the campaign tactics in 1828.

§  Why did Andrew Jackson have the “common-man” appeal?


The Spoils System

§  Describe the spoils system.  What arguments did Jackson make on its behalf?

§  What arguments did/do opponents of the spoils system make?


The Tricky “Tariff of Abominations” and “Nullies” in South Carolina

§  Why was the south outraged by the tariff of 1828

§  How did slavery affect southern thinking on the tariff issue?

§  Identify Denmark Vesey

§  What position did Calhoun’s South Carolina Exposition take?

§  How did Jackson respond to South Carolina?

§  How was the issue resolved?


The Trail of Tears

How were Native Americans impacted by the development of the west?  (see map-p 266)

How does the quote from Alexis de Tocqueville (p. 266) explain the American view toward Indian Removal?  (Who is de Tocqueville)


The Bank War, 1832 Election, Burying Biddle’s Bank

§  What were the arguments for and against re-chartering the Second Bank of the United States?

§  What was the result of Jackson’s veto of the re-chartering bill?

§  Identify Nicholas Biddle

§  How did bank proponents miscalculate politically?

§  What was novel about the 1832 election?

§  How did Jackson try to “bury” the bank (“pet banks”)

§  How did Biddle respond?

§  What us the significance of the Specie Circular- (all public lands purchases with “hard” or metallic money).


The Birth of the Whigs

§  What were the reasons for the emergence of the second party system?

§  What issues comprised the Whig Platform?


The Election of 1836, Big Woes for the Little Magician

§  What major issues/woes did President Van Buren confront during his administration?


Depression Doldrums and the Independent Treasury

What factors contributed to the panic of 1837?

What was the Independent Treasure bill?


Gone to Texas, Mexican or Texican, and The Lone Star Rebellion

§  Why did Mexico encourage Americans to settle in Texas?

§  How did relations deteriorate between the Mexican government and the Americans living in Texas?  What was the result of this deterioration? Identify:

            Sam Houston

            Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

            Goliad Massacre, The Alamo

§  Why was the idea of Texas annexation controversial both domestically and internationally?


Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840

§  What was the outcome of the 1840 Election? 

§  How did the Whigs successfully play the Democrats game?

§  Who is the first Whig to be elected President?


Politics for the People and the Two-Party System

§  What two major changes in American politics were demonstrated in the election of 1840?  (282-283)


Additional Topics to Know:

§  Maysville Road Veto

§  Jacksonian Democracy


Discussion Questions

1.      How did politics become more democratic during this era?

2.      What were the successes and limitations of Jacksonian democracy?

3.      Defend John C. Calhoun in his attempt to reconcile strong states’ rights with a  strong Union.  Include fears/concerns Calhoun might have regarding a powerful federal government.

4.      What is your reaction to President Jackson’s refusal to uphold the US Supreme Court in the case between the Cherokee Nation and the state of Georgia?


Chapter 14 Study Guide

Forging the National Economy


The Westward Movement and Shaping the Western Landscape

§  Describe the myth verses the reality of frontier life.

§  How did westward movement alter the physical environment?


The March of Millions, The Emerald Isle Moves West, The German Forty-Eighters

§  Describe the growth in immigration to the US between 1815-1860.

§  What factors caused the surge in immigration to the US?

§  To what extent was the US becoming an urban nation?

§  Describe the characteristics and experiences of Irish and German immigrants.

§  What were the expectations and realities for these new immigrants?


Flare-up of Anti-foreignism

§  What are the causes of nativism and Anti-Catholicism?

§  Who were the Know-Nothings?

§  Vocab term: xenophobia


Creeping Mechanization and Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine

§  Why was the United States slow to embrace mechanization?

§  Identify Samuel Slater

§  How did Eli Whitney’s cotton gin transform America?  What were the positive and negative effects?

§  Why was New England favored as an industrial center?


Marvels in Manufacturing

§  What was the system of interchangeable parts (American system of manufacturing) and what were some of its advantages?

§  What were the positive and negative effects of the invention of the sewing machine?

§  What was the significance of Samuel Morse’s telegraph?


Workers and “Wage Slaves”

§  Describe the labor conditions of the early factory system.  How did industrialization affect workers?  How did workers respond?

§  How did industrialization bring changes in social and class structures?  (see also next section)

§  Identify: Commonwealth v. Hunt. Why was it considered a victory for organized labor?


Women and the Economy

§  Describe employment opportunities for women.

§  Identify: factory girls, Lowell System

§  Define the “cult of domesticity” and the idea of separate “spheres.”  How did these expectations affect women?

§  How was life changing for wives and mothers?


Western Farmers Reap a Revolution in the Fields

§  What technological advancements occurred in farming?

§  What was the impact of McCormick’s reaper?


Highways and Steamboats, “Clinton’s Big Ditch” in New York

The Iron Horse, Cables, Clippers, and Pony Riders

§  What changes to transportation occurred in the first half of the 1800’s? 

            Turnpikes and Roads, National Road

            Steamboat (Robert Fulton and the Clermont)

            Canals (Erie Canal)  (see map on p. 313)


            Clipper ships

§  What advances were made in communications?


The Transport Web Binds the Union and The Market Revolution

§  What were the impacts of the transportation revolution?

§  Define “market revolution.”

§  How did the market revolution affect the United States?  What opportunities and hardships did it create?

§  Using the map on p. 318, which region of the US is most economically diversified?


Discussion Questions

1.      Clearly, advances in transportation were extremely important to the economic development of the US.  In what ways is transportation still important to our economy and standard of living?

2.      The map on page 318 depicts various regions and their economic specialties.  Why is this specialization good for the American economy?  How might it also be a divisive force?

3.      Is the immigrant experience of the 1840s more similar or different to today’s immigrants to the United States?

4.      What do you believe were the greatest impacts (positive and/or negative) of the transportation changes in the US during the antebellum era?


Chapter 15 Study Guide

The Ferment of Reform and Culture, 1790-1860


Reviving Religion & Denominational Diversity

§  Define Deism.

§  What was the Second Great Awakening? 

§  Identify Charles Finney

§  Define:  Evangelical Protestant revivalism

§  How did the Second Great Awakening promote social reform movements?

§  How does the new theory of perfectionism differ from predestination (outside materials needed)


A Desert Zion in Utah

§  Identify Joseph Smith.

§  How do the Mormon experiences show both religious tolerance and intolerance in America?


Free Schools for a Free People

§  What barriers to success did public schools have to overcome?

§  Why did tax-supported public education expand?

§  Describe the reforms of Horace Mann?


Higher Goals for Higher Learning

§  What was the majority attitude regarding women’s higher education?  How was it being challenged?


An Age of Reform

§  How did religion encourage reform?

§  How was the criminal justice system reformed?

§  What reforms did Dorothea Dix promote?


Demon Rum-The “Old Deluder”

§  What was the American Temperance Society?

§  How did temperance advocates differ from prohibitionists?


Women in Revolt

§  How were gender differences emphasized in nineteenth-century America?

§  Define “cult of domesticity.”

§  Who were Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony?

§  What was the significance of the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848?

§  Document analysis:  Declaration of Sentiments


Wilderness Utopias

§  What is a “utopian” reformer?


The Dawn of Scientific Achievement

§  Describe the level of medical knowledge in antebellum America.

§  Why was there a short life expectancy?


Note: the remainder of the chapter will be covered in Honors American Literature. 


Discussion Questions:

1.      Select a current day reform movement that you support and describe how the reform movement is organized.  Who leads the movement?  What methods are used to encourage change?  Where does funding come from? 

2.      “The importance of scientific achievement, especially in medicine, is often underrated in history.”  To what extent do you agree with this statement?

3.      Compare and contrast educational institutions in the North verses the South.

4.      Which reform would you most likely support back in the mid 1800s?


AP US History

Unit 4 Study Guides

Sectionalism, The Civil War & Reconstruction


Chapter 16 Study Guide 

The South and the Slavery Controversy


“Cotton is King”

§  How did Eli Whitney’s cotton gin transform the South? (review)

§  How did the North and South benefit from cotton production?

§  Why did southerners believe that cotton production gave them diplomatic leverage?


The Planter “Aristocracy”

§  Describe the “planter aristocracy.” 


Slaves of the Slave System

§  What economic risks and disadvantages did cotton producers and slaveholders face?


The White Majority

§  Describe the social structure of the South.

§  Define “yeoman farmers” (outside resource needed)

§  How many white southerners owned slaves?

§  What do the maps on p. 354-355 tell us about the transformation of the South (1820-1860)?

§  Why did non-slaveholders defend slavery?


Free Blacks: Slaves without Masters

§  Describe the life of free blacks in the North and the South.


Plantation Slavery and Life Under the Lash

§  Why did the slave population in the US continue to grow after the importation of slaves was outlawed in 1808?  How did supporters of slavery use this fact to defend the “peculiar institution?”

§  Why were slave auctions one of slavery’s “greatest psychological horrors?”

§  Describe the life of a slave: daily life, family life, religion, culture etc.

§  What states were considered the Deep South?


The Burdens of Bondage

§  How did slaves rebel/resist?

§  Why were violent slave uprisings uncommon?

§  How did the “dark taint of slavery leave its mark on whites”?


Early Abolitionism and Radical Abolitionism

§  Use the map on page 364 to determine where and when slavery was already abolished in the US.

§  How did the abolitionist movement take on new energy during the 1830s?

§  Identify: American Colonization Society, William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass

§  How did the approaches of Garrison and Douglass differ?


The South Lashes Back

§  What was the Mason-Dixon line?

§  What was the result of Nat Turner’s rebellion in 1831?

§  How did white southerners defend the peculiar institution of slavery?

§  What was the Gag Resolution?

§  Identify Cannibals All! by George Fitzhugh (outside information needed)



The Abolitionist Impact in the North

§  What was the impact of abolitionists in the North?

§  Who were the “free-soilers?”


What Was the True Nature of Slavery? (Varying Viewpoints)

§  Describe the debate that historians have had about slavery?

§  How did slaves adapt to the conditions of slavery?

§  Define manumission.


Discussion Questions

1.      Racism caused slavery, but slavery also caused racism.  Explain why this is true.

2.      To antebellum southerners, abolitionists were feared and hated.  Why did the abolitionist movement provoke such a strong reaction?

3.      How is the South’s dependency on cotton similar and different to the US dependency on oil?

4.      What do you believe are the greatest factors which contributed to the continuation of slavery throughout the South?


Chapter 17 Study Guide 

Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy


The Accession of “Tyler Too”

§  Why were Whigs not supportive of Tyler’s accession to the presidency?


John Tyler: A President Without a Party

§  Why was Tyler hostile to a centralized bank?

§  Why did Tyler initially oppose the tariff and then later sign the law?


A War of Words with Britain & Manipulating the Maine Maps

§  What hostilities erupted between the US and Britain on the Canadian frontier in 1837?

§  What was the controversy surrounding the Maine boundary dispute and how did the Webster-Ashburton Treaty solve the problem?


The Lone Star of Texas Shines Alone

§  What were the British and French interests in Texas?

§  What pressures did the US feel to annex Texas?


The Belated Texas Nuptials

§  Trace the annexation process of Texas by the United States?

§  What was the Mexican response to the Texas annexation?  Why?





Oregon Fever Populates Oregon

§  What was the Oregon territory?

§  Trace the process in which the US and Britain settled on boundaries of Oregon territory.  (see also Polk the Purposeful).


A Mandate (?) for Manifest Destiny

§  Identify the political parties and candidates in the 1844 Presidential Election.

§  Define “dark horse” candidate.

§  What were the parties’ positions on land acquisition and slavery?

§  Define Manifest Destiny.


Polk the Purposeful

§  What were Polk’s four major goals as president?  How were they achieved?


Misunderstanding with Mexico

§  What conflicts existed between the US and Mexico?

§  What was John Slidell’s mission to Mexico?  Was it successful?


American Blood on American (?) Soil

§  When and why did war erupt between Mexico and the United States?

§  Did Polk’s stated reasons for war match his real motives?


The Mastering of Mexico and Fighting Mexico for Peace

§  From an American perspective, how successful was the war?

§  Identify: Zachary Taylor & Winfield Scott

§  What were the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?

§  How might the war be characterized as and early example of U.S. imperialism?


Profit and Loss in Mexico

§  What were the short and long term effects of the Mexican-American War?

§  What was the Wilmot proviso?  Why is it significant?


The Californios (Makers of America)

§  How does this story exemplify the plight of Spanish/Mexican Americans in the Southwest?


Discussion Questions

1.      Describe the ideology of manifest destiny and imperialism.  Does the US still embrace this way of thinking today?

2.      Was the US declaration of War on Mexico justified?

3.      Did President Polk provoke war with Mexico? Explain.

4.      How did the Mexican-American War victory rekindle the slavery debate?


Chapter 18 Study Guide 

Renewing the Sectional Struggle


The Popular Sovereignty Panacea

§  Define popular sovereignty.  How was it seen as a solution to the slavery controversy?

§  Identify Lewis Cass.


Political Triumphs for General Taylor

§  What was the Whig strategy for winning in 1848?

§  What was the Free-Soiler’s platform?  Who did it attract?


“Californy Gold”

§  What was the significance of the 1848 gold discovery?

§  When applying for statehood, what was California’s position on slavery?


Sectional Balance and the Underground Railroad

§  Why were Southerners against the admission of California?

§  What other issues were angering Southerners?

§  What was the Underground Railroad?  Who was Harriet Tubman

§  What was the fugitive-slave law?


Twilight of the Senatorial Giants

§  Explain the title of this section.

§  What was the position of each of the following senators regarding the admission of California?

            Senator Henry Clay

            Senator John C. Calhoun

            Senator Daniel Webster


Deadlock and Danger on Capitol Hill and Breaking the Congressional Logjam

§  Who were the “fire-eaters”?

§  Why did compromise prevail in 1850?


Balancing the Compromise Scales

§  What were the features of the Compromise of 1850?


Defeat and Doom for the Whigs

§  Why did the Whig party effectively end after the election of 1852?

§  What was the result of the 1852 election?


Expansionist Stirrings South of the Border

§  What were the pressures for and against US expansion?

§  What was the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty in 1850?

§  What were filibustering expeditions?

§  What was the Ostend Manifesto?  What did it result in?


The Allure of Asia

§  What were US interests in the Pacific and in Asia?

§  Who was Commodore Matthew Perry and what is he known for?


Pacific Railroad Promoters and the Gadsden Purchase

§  What was the Gadsden Purchase? 

§  What were the positions of the North and the South regarding this purchase?


Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Scheme

§  Who is Stephen Douglas?

§  Why did Douglas promote splitting the Nebraska Territory into two territories? 

§  Why was Douglas supportive of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and allowing popular sovereignty in the Kansas/Nebraska territories?


Congress Legislates a Civil War

§  Why was the Kansas-Nebraska Act considered “one of the most momentous measures ever to pass Congress?”

§  How do the maps on p. 399 and p. 400 show the effect of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?

§  What were the political ramifications of the new sectional bitterness?

            Split of Democratic Party

Rise of Republican Party


Discussion Questions

1.      Create a current day hypothetical scenario in which a section of the US seceded from the remaining US.

2.      How did the Kansas-Nebraska Bill create a sectional rift not likely to heal until the end of the Civil War?

3.      How did Manifest Destiny and expansionism encourage sectionalism

4.      Explain how the events of the early 1850s created the demand for an anti-slavery political party.


Chapter 19 Study Guide 

Drifting Toward Disunion (1854-1861)


“As the moral temperatures rose, prospects for a peaceful political solution to the slavery issue simply evaporated.”  Explain this quote from the chapter’s introduction.


Stowe and Helper: Literary Incendiaries

§  What was the public reaction to Harriet Beecher Stowe’s book Uncle Tom’s Cabin?

§  What was the thesis of Hinton R. Helper’s book The Impending Crisis of the South?


The North-South Contest for Kansas and Kansas in Convulsion

§  Why did both sides in the Kansas conflict claim to be victims of foul play?

§  Trace the escalating crisis in “Bleeding Kansas.”

§  Who is John Brown?  Identify the Pottawatomie Creek massacre.

§  Identify the Lecompton Constitution.

§  What was President James Buchanan’s position on the Kansas crisis? 

§  What was the political impact of Buchanan’s stance?


“Bully” Brooks and His Bludgeon

§  What precipitated the violent exchange between Brooks and Sumner?

§  Describe the violence that erupted on the senate floor between congressman Preston Brooks and Senator Charles Sumner.

§  What opinion does the cartoon on page 414 express?


“Old Buck” Verses “The Pathfinder” and The Electoral Fruits of 1856

§  Review Rise of Republican Party (p. 408)

§  Compare and contrast the two political candidates for US President in 1856.

§  What was the Know-Nothing party?

§  Why did the Republicans claim a “victorious defeat” in the 1856 Election?


The Dred Scott Bombshell

§  Who is Dred Scott?

§  What was the Supreme Court decision regarding Scott?  What was the fate of popular sovereignty according to this decision?

§  Contrast the Southern reaction to this decision with the Northern reaction.


The Financial Crash of 1857

§  What caused the crash of 1857?  What were its effects?

§  What were the political ramifications of the Panic of 1857?

§  What was the reaction of Eastern industrialists and Southerners regarding a proposed free farms of 160 acres from the public domain?


An Illinois Rail-Splitter Emerges and The Great Debate: Lincoln Versus Douglas

§  What political race did Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln run in 1858?

§  What is the significance of the Lincoln-Douglas Debates?

§  What was Douglas’ Freeport Doctrine?

John Brown: Murderer or Martyr?

§  What was Brown’s plan at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia?

§  What were the repercussions of the Raid on Harper’s Ferry? 



The Disruption of the Democrats and A Rail-Splitter Splits the Union

§  Describe the split within the Democratic party.

§  What was the Republican platform in 1860?

§  List the four candidates and their political parties in the Election of 1860.


The Electoral Upheaval of 1860

§  What were the final vote tallies in the election?

§  Why is Lincoln considered a “minority president?”

§  What was the political position of the South after Lincoln’s election?


The Secessionist Exodus

§  Trace the secession of Southern states following Lincoln’s election.

§  Who is Jefferson Davis?



The Collapse of Compromise

§  What were the Crittenden amendments?

§  Why did the Crittenden scheme fail?

§  Using the document letter on page 430, why might Senator Hammond’s attitude derail the Crittenden Compromise?


Farewell to Union

§  How did Southerners defend secession?

§  How did Southerners compare their situation to the American revolution?


The Civil War: Repressible of Irresistible?

§  Describe the various historical viewpoints on the inevitability of the Civil War?


Discussion Questions

1.      “To Southerners, John Brown was every bit as much of a terrorist as Osama bin Laden is to today’s America.”  To what extent do you agree with this statement?  

2.      Do you agree with the opinion that Horace Greeley expresses regarding secession (tan box, p. 428)?  Why/why not?

3.      Was the Civil War inevitable due to sectional differences or the result of political failures?

4.      Do you believe a slavery compromise could have prevented civil war in 1860? 


Chapter 20 Study Guide 

Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861-1865


The Menace of Secession

§  Define secede, secession

§  If secession were allowed, what problems would it create?

§  What was President Lincoln’s opinion of secession? (see opening quote)


South Carolina Assails Fort Sumter

§  Why did the union try to hold Fort Sumter?  Why did the Confederates want to take it?

§  What is the significance of the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter?

§  Which additional states seceded after the crisis at Fort Sumter?  Why?


Brother’s Blood and Border Blood

§  Define Border States.  Which slave states stayed in the Union?  Why?

§  Why were the Border States critical to the war?

§  Describe the position of the Five Civilized Tribes during the Civil War?




The Balance of Forces

§  What advantages did the South have at the start of the war? Disadvantages?

§  “The South did not have to win the war in order to win its independence.” (p. 438).  Explain.

§  Identify Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson.

§  What advantages did the North have at the start of the war? Disadvantages?

§  What does the photograph and caption on p. 439 teach us about the war?


Dethroning King Cotton

§  Why did the South expect European help?  Why did it not come?

§  What commodities did England want from the North?


The Decisiveness of Diplomacy and Foreign Flare-ups

§  What was the Trent Affair?

§  Trace the escalating conflict between the North and Great Britain?


President Davis Versus President Lincoln and Limitations on Wartime Liberties

§  Why did the confederate government have a more difficult time in leading the war effort?

§  Compare and contrast the leadership of Davis and Lincoln.

§  How did Lincoln deal with dissent?  Was he a strict or loose constructionist?

§  Define writ of habeas corpus.  Why did Lincoln suspend it?


Volunteers and Draftees: North and South

§  How did both sides mobilize enough soldiers?

§  When did the South institute a draft? North?

§  Define conscription.

§  What draft exemptions were available in the South? North?

§  Describe the New York draft riots.  What caused them?


The Economic Stresses of War

§  How did both sides finance the war? (note the use of income tax)

§  Why was the war less of a burden on the union economy?

§  Identify greenbacks. 

§  Identify the National Banking Act. 


The North’s Economic Boom

§  Describe the Northern wartime economy.

§  How did the war affect women?  How did women affect the war?

§  Identify Elizabeth Blackwell.


A Crushed Cotton Kingdom

§  How did the Civil war affect the Southern economy?


Discussion Questions

1.      Were Lincoln’s restrictions on Civil Liberties justified?

2.      How might the Civil War and American history have changed if the Confederate States of America had formed a military alliance with Great Britain?

3.      What do you believe were the North’s greatest assets in winning the war?

4.      Why was the South unable to get help from Europe during the Civil War?



Chapter 21 Study Guide 

The Furnace of Civil War 1861-1865


Bull Run Ends the “Ninety-Day War”

§  Where is Bull Run?  Describe the events on July 21, 1861.

§  Who won the Battle of Bull Run/Manassas?  What were its consequences?

§  What’s the concept of the 90-day war?  Why did it not come to fruition?


“Tardy George” McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign

§  Who was General George B. McClellan?

§  Describe his strategy to defeat the South.

§  Why did Lincoln accuse McClellan of having the “slows”?

§  What was the Southern response to McClellan’s Peninsula Campaign?

§  Who was Robert E. Lee? 

§  Identify the six components of the Northern military plan.


The War at Sea

§  How successful was the Northern blockade on the South?

§  How did the Monitor and Merrimack make history on March 9, 1862.


The Pivotal Point: Antietam

§  Why was the Battle at Antietam considered one of the decisive engagements of world history?


A Proclamation Without Emancipation

§  What was the Emancipation Proclamation?

§  In which areas were slaves freed according to this proclamation?

§  What were the results of the Emancipation Proclamation? Reactions to it?


Blacks Battle Bondage

§  How many blacks served in the Union army?

§  What steps did Lincoln take to enlist blacks in the armed forces?

§  How did slaves contribute to the collapse of slavery in the South?

§  According to the document on page 463, what hardships might a captured Black Union soldier endure?


Lee’s Last Lunge at Gettysburg

§  Why did Lee invade the North?

§  How did Meade defeat Lee at Gettysburg?  Identify Picket’s Charge.

§  Why do many see Gettysburg as the turning point in the war?


The War in the West

§  Who was Ulysses S. Grant?  Why did Lincoln like him?

§  What was the significance of the Northern victories at Vicksburg and Port Hudson?


Sherman Scorches Georgia

§  Who was General William Tecumseh Sherman? 

§  How did he “scorch Georgia?”

§  Define total war.  How did Sherman use “total war”?


The Politics of War

§  What political problems did Lincoln face in 1864?

§  Who were the Copperheads?


The Election of 1864

§  Would Lincoln have been justified in postponing the election until after the war?

§  Identify the candidates, their political parties and the key issues, and results of this election.


Grant Outlasts Lee

§  What was Grant’s strategy to defeat Lee?

§  Would you have respected Grant if he were your commanding officer?

§  When and where did the war finish?


The Martyrdom of Lincoln

§  What happened the night of April 14, 1865?  Why was Lincoln’s assassination significant?

§  Who was Andrew Johnson?


The Aftermath of the Nightmare & Varying Viewpoints: Consequences of Civil War

§  How many Americans died during the Civil War?

§  What were the other results/effects?


Discussion Questions

  1. Why did the Civil War produce such high casualty rates?  Was Lincoln’s tolerance and even encouragement of such high death rates immoral?
  2. “Southerners who fought against the Union are traitors and should be tried for treason.”  What is your reaction to this statement?
  3. According to the document on page 474, the South had the most to lose from Lincoln’s assassination.  Explain.


Chapter 22 Study Guide 

The Ordeal of Reconstruction 1865-1877


The Problems of Peace

§  What was the fate of former Rebel leaders?

§  Describe the economic life of the South following the war.


Freedmen Define Freedom

§  Describe the variety of responses to emancipation by whites and blacks.

§  What new opportunities did freedmen take advantage of?


The Freedmen’s Bureau

§  What was the purpose of the Freedmen’s Bureau?  What were its successes and failures?

§  What was President Johnson’s opinion of the Bureau?


Johnson: The Tailor President

§  What political experience did Andrew Johnson have prior to the Presidency?

§  Why did President Lincoln chose Johnson as a running mate in 1864?


Presidential Reconstruction

§  What had been Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction?

§  What was the Wade-Davis Bill?

§  What did the “radical Republicans” believe?

§  What was Johnson’s plan for reconstruction?

§  What is a presidential pardon?  How did Johnson use the pardon?


The Baleful Black Codes

§  What were the Black Codes?  Why did Johnson sanction the Black Codes?

§  Define sharecropping.  Explain the economic hardships that blacks faced.


Congressional Reconstruction

§  What outraged Republican congressmen in 1865?

§  What problems did the Republicans have with Presidential Reconstruction?

§  How were former Confederate leaders returned to power in the South?

§  Why were Northern republicans hesitant to accept these former Confederate leaders?

§  How were Blacks counted in congressional representation?


Johnson Clashes with Congress and Swinging ‘Round the Circle with Johnson

§  What was the Civil Rights Bill of 1866?

§  Trace the conflict regarding the Civil Rights Bill between the Republicans in Congress and Johnson.

§  Why did Radical Republicans try to usurp Johnson’s power?

§  Describe the 14th amendment.

§  How did the republicans create a veto-proof Congress?




Republican Principles and Programs

§  Who were Senator Charles Sumner and Representative Thaddeus Stevens?

§  Describe the rift between radicals and moderates.


Reconstruction by the Sword

§  What was the Reconstruction Act of 1867?

§  Describe the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments

§  What was Military Reconstruction of the South?

§  What did the court decide in Ex parte Milligan (1866)?


No Women Voters

§  What was the reaction by female leaders following the passage of the 14th and 15th Amendments?


The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South

§  Who were Hiram Revels and Blanche Bruce?

§  Who were the carpetbaggers and scalawags?

§  How well did the “radical” governments of the South perform?


The Ku Klux Klan

§  How did the KKK undermine attempts to empower blacks?

§  How did the federal government react to the rise of the KKK?

§  How were black males disenfranchised?


Johnson Walks the Impeachment Plank & A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson

§  Define the Tenure of Office Act

§  What charges did the Republicans accuse President Johnson of?

§  What was the result of the 1868 impeachment proceedings?

§  What precedent did the “not guilty” verdict set?


The Purchase of Alaska

§  How and why did the US secure the purchase of Alaska?


The Heritage of Reconstruction

§  What were the successes and failures of Reconstruction?


Discussion Questions:

1.      Some have argued that during Reconstruction the lands of large plantations should have been divided and given to former slaves as compensation.  Do you agree?  Why/why not?

2.      What do you find the single greatest achievement and the single greatest failure of Reconstruction to be?  Why?

3.      Had each slave received 40 acres and a mule, the Freedmen would have been enfranchised more quickly.  To what degree do you agree with this statement?

4.      What similarities and/or differences do you see between the Reconstruction of the US following the Civil War and the current day reconstruction of Iraq?


Chapter 23 (Selected Sections)


The “Bloody Shirt” Elects Grant (p. 504-505)

§  What is “waving the bloody shirt”?

§  What was the result of the 1868 Presidential Election?

§  Why was Grant considered a greenhorn in politics?


The Hayes-Tilden Standoff, 1876 & The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction (p. 510-511)

§  What was the controversy surrounding the results of the 1876 Election?

§  How was this controversy resolved? 

§  How was the Compromise of 1877 reached (the process)


The Birth of Jim Crow in the Post-Reconstruction South (p. 512-513)

§  Who were the “redeemers”?

§  Define crop-lien system (& debt peonage)

§  What are Jim Crow laws?

§  What was the US Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)?


AP US History

Unit 5 Study Guides

A Developing Nation:  the US in the Late 1800s



Chapter 26 Study Guide 

The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution


The Clash of Cultures on the Plains

§  Describe the clash of cultures which occurred on the Plains.

§  Describe the United States government’s policy toward Indians. 

§  What was promised to the Indians in order to get them to surrender their ancestoral lands?

§  How was the Indian way of life impacted by Non-Indians?

§  Who were the Buffalo Soldiers?


Receding Native Population

§  What occurred at Sand Creek, Colorado in 1864?

§  What occurred during Custer's Last Stand?  What brought about the conflict?

o   Treaty of Fort Laramie 1868

o   Black Hills

§  Identify Sitting Bull.

§  Describe Chief Joseph’s plight.

§  How did the railroad effect the Indians?


Bellowing Herds of Bison

§  What factors contributed to the demise of the buffalo? 

§  What impact did this have on the Plains Indians?

§  Identify Buffalo Bill Cody


The End of the Trail

§  What attempts were made by reformers to “save” the Indians?

o   Carlisle Indian School

o   Helen Hunt Jackson, a Century of Dishonor

o   Dawes Severalty Act (1887)

§  What was the Ghost Dance?  How was it perceived by the army?

§  What occurred at Wounded Knee, South Dakota in 1890?

§  Review the maps and captions on page 602 related to government policy.


Mining: From Dishpan to Ore Breaker

§  Who were the “fifty-niners?”

§  What effect did the mining frontier have on the west?


Beef Bonanzas and the Long Drive

§  What are “long horns?”

§  What were the conditions of the “long drive?”


The Farmers’ Frontier

§  What was the Homestead Act of 1862?

§  How did the railways play a role in developing the agricultural West?

§  What adaptations to the western environment were made by farmers?

§  Define “dry farming.” 

§  Review the map on p. 610.  What impact has rainfall had on the development of the US?


The Far West Comes of Age & The Fading Frontier

§  When was Oklahoma opened for White settlement?

§  What is Frederick Jackson Turner’s thesis?

§  What Environmental degradation occurred and what preservation attempts occurred?

o   Yellowstone National Park

§  Differentiate between myth and reality in the Old West.


The Farm Becomes a Factory

§  Define cash crop and Bonanza farms.

§  What changes in mechanization of agriculture created “farming factories?”


Deflation Dooms the Debtor

§  Define deflation

§  How did low prices and a deflated currency frustrate farmers?

§  How did interest rates impact farmers’ finances?


Unhappy Farmers

§  What natural disasters did farmers have to contend with?

§  What other challenges were farmers confronted by?


The Farmers Take Their Stand

§  What are granges?  What were the goals of the Grangers? 

§  Who was Oliver H. Kelley?

§  What was the platform of the Greenback Labor Party?


Prelude to Populism

§  What were the goals of the Farmers’ Alliance?

§  What were the goals of the People’s Party (Populists)?

§  Who was Mary Elizabeth Lease?


The Drumbeat of Discontent—From Chapter 23 (p. 523-525)

§  What was the Populist Party?  Why did it emerge?  What was its platform?


Discussion Questions

1.      What is the single most important factor that contributed to the demise of Native American culture in the US?

2.      Do you think that populists were right to ask the government for increased protection on behalf of farmers?


Chapter 24 Study Guide 

Industry Comes of Age (1865-1900)


The Iron Colt Becomes an Iron Horse

§  Why did the government support the construction of railroads with government subsidies, loans and land grants?


Spanning the Continent with Rails

§  Which two railroad companies built the Transcontinental Railroad?

§  How did the government “pay” for the construction?

§  What hardships did railroad workers face? 

§  When was it completed?  What made the completion of the transcontinental line significant?


Binding the Country with Railroad Ties

§  Who is James J. Hill?

§  By reading the document on page 534, what was the Populists’ opinion of the railroad leaders?


Railroad Consolidation and Mechanization and Revolution by Railways

§  What two significant new improvements proved a boom to the railroads?

§  What effects did completion of the rail network have on the United States?

§  How did it open vast new markets and promote industrial growth?

§  How did it stimulate mining and agricultural production?


Wrongdoing in Railroading

§  What techniques did the some of the railroad owners conduct to maximize profits?

§  Review the editorial cartoon on page 536.  How is Vanderbilt portrayed? 

§  What is a “pool?”


Government Bridles the Iron Horse

§  Why were the American people slow to respond to the railroads’ corruption?

§  What did the US Supreme Court rule in the 1886 Wabash case?

§  What are the Interstate Commerce Act and Interstate Commerce Commission?

§  What precedent did it set?

§  How successful was congress in reigning in the monopolistic railroads?


Miracles of Mechanization

§  What factors contributed to the industrial boom in the US?

§  What major inventions were created during the late 1800s?  How did they transform America?

§  What were Thomas Edison’s greatest accomplishments?


The Trust Titan Emerges

§  Why did industrial giants try to circumvent competition?

§  What is vertical integration?

§  What is horizontal integration?

§  How does a trust serve to limit competition?

§  Who is John D. Rockefeller?

§  Define “corporate consolidation” (outside information needed)

The Supremacy of Steel

§  Explain the importance of the Bessemer process.

§  Why was steel the king of the industrial age?


Carnegie and Other Sultans of Steel

§  Describe the rise of Andrew Carnegie.

§  Who is JP Morgan?


Rockefeller Grows an American Beauty Rose

§  How did Rockefeller become a successful businessman?

§  How is Rockefeller a “robber baron?” A “captain of industry?”


The Gospel of Wealth

§  What does Carnegie believe is the responsibility of the wealthy? (Gospel of Wealth)

§  Define Social Darwinism.


Government Tackles the Trust Evil

§  Why did the government seek to regulate trusts?

§  What is the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890?  How was it applied?


The South in the Age of Industry

§  What obstacles lay in the path of southern industrialization?

§  In what ways was the economy of the New South changing in the late 1800s.

§  Review the chart and caption on the top of p. 546.  Why do you think that textile production declines in the later stages of industrialization? 


The Impact of the New Industrial Revolution on America

§  How did industrialization effect the US?  (make a list of effects)

§  How were women impacted by the new industrial age?

§  How were the benefits of industrialization unevenly distributed?


In Unions There Is Strength

§  How did industrialization effect workers?

§  What are labor unions?  What were the general goals and tactics of unions?

§  What techniques did corporations use to prevent efforts by workers to gain more power?



            Yellow-dog contract

            Black list

            Company towns


Labor Limps Along

§  What types of workers were included in the National Labor Union of 1866?

§  What was the Knights of Labor organization?  Who is Terence V. Powderly?


Unhorsing the Knights of Labor

§  What happened at Haymarket Square in Chicago on May 4, 1886? 

§  How did it hurt the Knights of Labor?

§  How did “scabs” undermine striking workers?


The AF of L to the Fore

§  What is the AFL?

§  Who is Samuel Gompers?

§  What type of workers were excluded from the AFL (unlike the Knights of Labor)?

§  What percentage of workers were unionized in 1900?

§  What attitude shift had the labor movement achieved by 1900?


(From Chapter 23, p. 514-515)  Class Conflicts and Ethnic Clashes

§  What was the result of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877? 

§  What hardships did organized labor face?

§  Why was the Chinese Exclusion Act passed?


Discussion Questions

1.      Contrast the Gospel of Wealth with Social Darwinism.  How is this disagreement still evident in American politics today?

2.      Review the photo and text in the tan box on page 549.  Give a current day example of an influencing photo/documentary.  How has that photo influenced current day public policy?


Chapter 25 Study Guide

America Moves to the City (1865-1900)


The Urban Frontier

§  Statistically describe the urbanization of America.

§  Who is Louis Sullivan?  What was his contribution to cities?

§  What attractions/amenities lured people into the cities?

§  What was life like in the slums and dumbbell tenements?

§  Using the chart on p. 560, what was the greatest period of urbanization in US history?


The New Immigration & Southern Europe Uprooted

§  From which countries were the so-called New Immigrants?

§  What sort of jobs did they primarily fill?

§  What were some reasons for immigrants to leave their home countries?

§  Identify push (negatives about old country) & pull (positives about new country) factors.


Reactions to the New Immigration

§  How did political machines assist immigrants?  What were their motives?

§  How did religious groups assist immigrants?

§  What was the “social gospel”

§  Who is Jane Addams?

§  How did the Hull House settlement homes assist immigrants?


Narrowing the Welcome Mat

§  Define nativism.

§  Using the doc. on page 570, what decade had the largest number of “new” immigrants? “Old?’

§  What fears did “native” Americans have regarding new immigrants?

§  What was organized labor response to immigration?

§  What was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882?


Churches Confront the Urban Challenge

§  What were the churches responses to the growing urban challenges?


Darwin Disrupts the Churches

§  How did religious people respond to Darwin’s theories?  (note the diverse response)


The Lust of Learning

§  What advances were made in public education?


Booker T. Washington and Education for Black People

§  What sort of education was promoted by Booker T. Washington? 

§  How did his opinion contrast with W.E.B. Du Bois’?

§  What is the NAACP?


The Hallowed Halls of Ivy

§  How did the Morrill Act of 1862 spur the growth of higher education?


The March of the Mind--SKIP


The Appeal of the Press & Apostles of Reform

§  How did the newspaper and magazine business both serve and harm the public interest?

§  What is yellow journalism?


Postwar Writing

§  What is defined as a “Horatio Alger” story?


Literary Landmarks—SKIP

The New Morality--SKIP


Families and Women in the City

§  What was the trend in divorce rates (see chart on p. 585)

§  How did urban life dictate changes in work habits and in family size?

§  What was the National American Woman Suffrage Association?

§  Why did Western states lead the way in granting women the right to vote?

§  Who is Ida B. Wells?


Prohibition of Alcohol and Social Progress

§  What were the motives of those in favor of prohibition?

§  What is the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union?  Who is Frances Willard?


Artistic Triumphs--SKIP

The Business of Amusement--SKIP


Discussion Questions

1.      As you read about nativism in the late 1800s, what similarities and differences do you find with nativism in today’s society.

2.      Using the graph on page 560, what do you believe is the most significant factor for the growth of cities in the first 20 years of the 1900s.  Additionally, what do you believe the single greatest factor for the slow down in urban growth beginning in the 1970s is.


Chapter 27 Study Guide 

Empire and Expansion, 1890-1909


American Turns Outward

§  What developments encouraged the United States to expand overseas?

§  Define “yellow journalism.”

§  Who is Josiah Strong?

§  How was Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan influential?

§  In the editorial cartoon on page 627, how are countries perceived by the US?


Spurning the Hawaiian Pear

§  What were US interests in Hawaii?

§  What process did the US use to achieve these interests?

§  Who is Queen Liliuokalani?

§  Define annexation.


Cubans Rise in Revolt

§  Why did Cuba revolt against Spain?

§  Why did the US declare war on Spain in 1898?

§  Define jingoistic (jingoism)

§  What is the significance of the USS Maine explosion?

§  Why did McKinley ask for a declaration of war against Spain?

§  What is the Teller Amendment?


Dewey’s May Day Victory at Manila

§  What were the US interests in the Philippines?

§  Describe Admiral Dewey’s actions.


The Confused Invasion of Cuba

§  Who were the Rough Riders?

§  What were the results of the invasion?



American’s Course (Curse) of Empire

§  As a result of the Spanish-American War, what territories did the US acquire?

§  Why were the Philippines considered “a veritable apple of discord?”

§  What were the arguments for and against the acquisition of the Philippines?

§  Define imperialism.

§  What was the Anti-Imperialism League?


Perplexities in Puerto Rico and Cuba

§  How did the US govern Puerto Rico and the Philippines?  What rights did the people there have?

§  What was the Platt Amendment?  (Contrast to the Teller Amendment)


New Horizons in Two Hemispheres

§  Why did Sec. of State John Hay call the Spanish-American War “a splendid little war?”


“Little Brown Brothers’ in the Philippines

§  What was the reaction by the Filipino rebels towards the US occupation of the Philippines? 

§  Identify Emilio Aguinaldo.

§  What was the result of the US suppression of the Filipino rebellion?


Hinging the Open Door in China

§  What were US interests in China?

§  Define Open Door Policy.

§  What was the goal of the Boxers?  How was the Boxer Rebellion put down?


Imperialism or Bryanism in 1900?

§  What was Bryan’s position on imperialism?  Who won the election?


TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick

§  What were the circumstances under which Teddy Roosevelt became President?

§  Explain “Speak softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far.”


Building the Panama Canal

§  What were US interests in Panama?

§  How did the US encourage Panama to revolt against Columbia?

§  What important role did William Gorgas play in the completion of the canal?

§  Why was the completion of the canal in 1914 a major engineering, commercial, and military accomplishment?


TR’s Perversion of Monroe’s Doctrine

§  What was the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine?

§  Why does the text refer to this as a “perversion”?

§  Give an example of TR using the “Big Stick.”


Roosevelt on the World Stage

§  Why did Roosevelt win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906?

Japanese Laborers in California

§  Why were Californians ranting about a new “yellow peril?”

§  What was the Gentlemen’s Agreement?

§  Why did Roosevelt send the Great White Fleet on a good will tour?


Discussion Questions

1.      What is your reaction to President McKinley’s quote on p. 636? (tan box)

2.      Is the US war in Iraq a modern example of US imperialism?  Support you answer.

3.      Do you believe that Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt’s actions supported a “Good Neighbor” Policy or “Bad Neighbor” policy?

4.      What is your reaction to the Anti-Imperialist League? 

Semester Test Review & Information


The AP US History Semester Test will be given on Monday, January 26.   The test will include 55 multiple choice questions, 20 matching questions on key people, and 20 matching questions on key events or concepts.  Each question is worth .5 points for a total of 47.5 possible points.  Your score will be recorded based on 43 possible points—so, you may answer 9 questions incorrectly and still get a “perfect” score.  The multiple choice section is comprehensive—questions may be based on any development in US history up to 1900.  The matching questions will come from these lists.



1.             Adams, John

2.             Biddle, Nicholas

3.             Brown, John

4.             Cady Stanton, Elizabeth

5.             Calhoun, John C.

6.             Carnegie, Andrew

7.             Chief Joseph

8.             Clay, Henry

9.             Cody, Buffalo Bill

10.          Custer, George Armstrong

11.          Davis, Jefferson

12.          Dix, Dorthea

13.          Douglas, Stephen

14.          Douglass, Frederick

15.          Edison, Thomas

16.          Franklin, Benjamin

17.          Fulton, Robert

18.          Garrison, William Lloyd

19.          Grant, Ulysses S.

20.          Hamilton, Alexander

21.          Hunt Jackson, Helen

22.          Hutchinson, Anne

23.          Jackson, Andrew

24.          Jefferson, Thomas

25.          Lee, Robert E.

26.          Lincoln, Abraham

27.          Madison, James

28.          Marshall, John

29.          McClellan, George

30.          Morgan, JP

31.          Morse, Samuel

32.          Mott, Lucretia

33.          Nast, Thomas

34.          Oglethorpe, James

35.          Paine, Thomas

36.          Penn, William

37.          Polk, James K.

38.          Rockefeller, John D.

39.          Sherman, William T.

40.          Sitting Bull

41.          Smith, John

42.          Stowe, Harriet Beecher

43.          Sumner, Charles

44.          Tecumseh

45.          Turner, Nat

46.          Tweed, William Marcy

47.          Washington, George

48.          Whitney, Eli

49.          Williams, Roger

50.          Winthrop, John



  1. City Upon the Hill
  2. Half-Way Covenant
  3. Mercantilism
  4. indentured servitude
  5. Bacon’s Rebellion
  6. Great Awakening
  7. Glorious Revolution
  8. Pueblo Revolt
  9. Enlightenment
  10. Salutary Neglect
  11. French & Indian War
  12. Stamp Act
  13. Boston Tea Party
  14. Coercive Act
  15. Republican Motherhood
  16. Declaration of Independence
  17. Articles of Confederation
  18. Shay’s Rebellion
  19. War for Independence
  20. Constitutional Convention
  21. Bill of Rights
  22. Hamilton’s Economic Plan
  23. Whiskey Rebellion
  24. Alien & Sedition Act
  25. XYZ Affair
  26. Election of 1800
  27. Louisiana Purchase
  28. Marbury v. Madison
  29. Embargo Act
  30. War of 1812
  31. Missouri Compromise
  32. Clay’s American System
  33. Monroe Doctrine
  34. Nativism
  35. Cult of Domesticity
  36. Transcendentalism
  37. Invention of Cotton Gin
  38. Indian Removal Act
  39. The rise of the market economy
  40. Jacksonian Democracy
  41. Nullification Crisis
  42. Bank War
  43. Manifest Destiny
  44. Mexican War
  45. Seneca Falls Convention
  46. Compromise of 1850
  47. Popular Sovereignty
  48. Kansas-Nebraska Act
  49. Dred Scott Decision
  50. John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry
  51. Election of 1860
  52. Homestead Act
  53. Writ of Habeas Corpus
  54. Radical Reconstruction
  55. Jim Crow Laws
  56. The New South
  57. Tenure of Office Act
  58. Compromise of 1877
  59. Battle of Little Big Horn
  60. Transcontinental Railroad
  61. collective bargaining
  62. social gospel
  63. social Darwinism
  64. Wounded Knee massacre
  65. Imperialism



Unit 6:  Political Change: 

From the Gilded Age to Progressivism

Politics of the Gilded Age (1865-1900)


Note:  These sections come from Chapters 23 & 26. 


The Era of Good Stealings (p. 505) and A Carnival of Corruption (p. 506)

§  What corrupt practices did Jim Fisk and Jay Gould conduct?

§  Who is Boss Tweed?

§  Who is Thomas Nast?

§  What examples of corruption were evident closer to the White House?

What was the Credit Mobilier scandal?

What was the Whiskey Ring?


The Liberal Republican Revolt of 1872—Skip (FYI Grant re-elected)


Depression, Deflation, and Inflation (p. 508)

§  What caused the economic panic in 1873?

§  Why do people in debt prefer greenbacks?

§  Why did “hard-money” advocates want the withdrawal of greenbacks from circulation?

§  What is the policy “contraction?”


Garfield and Arthur (p. 515)

§  What was the Pendleton Act?  How did Garfield’s death help it pass?


From Ch. 26

Coxey’s Army and the Pullman Strike (p. 617)

§  Who was Jacob Coxey?  What solutions did he offer?

§  Who was Eugene V. Debs?  What solutions did he offer?

§  What was the cause of the Pullman strike of 1894?  How did it end?


Golden McKinley and Silver Bryan (p. 618)

§  Contrast the monetary policies of maintaining the gold standard verses inflating the currency by monetizing silver.

§  Who is Marcus Hanna?  What does he teach us about politics of the age?

§  Who is William Jennings Bryan?

§  What was the significance of Bryan’s Cross of Gold speech?


Class Conflict: Plowholders versus Bondholders (p. 620)

§  Why was the Election of 1896 considered a “resounding victory for big business, the  big cities, middle-class values, and financial conservatism?”


Republican Stand-pattism Enthroned (p. 623)

§  What is stand-pattism?

§  What was President McKinley’s position on tariffs?

§  What was the result of new gold deposits discovered throughout the world?




Chapter 28 Study Guide 

Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt, 1901-1912


Overview Questions (from text and class discussion)

Define progressivism.

What characteristics did most progressives share?

Were progressives radical, conservative or neither?

Which issues were most important to progressives and which issues did they generally fail to address?

How might progressivism be seen as a reaction to the Gilded Age?


Progressive Roots and Raking Muck with the Muckrakers

§  Describe the role of journalists and novelists in promoting progressive reforms.

§  Define “muckrakers”


Political Progressivism and Progressivism in the Cities and States

§  What were the political goals of the progressives?

§  What reforms were made in the political arena?

§  What was the purpose of the 17th amendment?

§  Who was Robert La Follette?  What impact did he make on reform efforts?


Progressive Women

§  Trace women’s attempts to break out of the “Women’s Sphere.”

§  What reforms movements were women campaigning for?

§  Who was Florence Kelley?  What reforms did she support?

§  What was the ruling in Muller v. Oregon?

§  What reforms were encouraged after the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire?

§  What is the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union and who is Frances Willard?


TR’s Square Deal for Labor

§  Define “Square Deal.”  What are the Three C’s?

§  Describe TR’s role in the Pennsylvania coal mining dispute.  How was this different from the past? 

§  Why did TR urge Congress to create the Department of Commerce and Labor?


TR Corrals the Corporations

§  What were the Elkins Act of 1903 and Hepburn Act of 1906?

§  How did TR differentiate between good trusts and bad trusts?

§  To what degree was TR a “trust buster?” (look at both Northern Securities & JP Morgan’s consolidation plan).

§  Identify the Northern Securities case.  What precedent did it set?


Caring for the Consumer

§  What was the significance of Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle?

§  Why was the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 passed?

§  What is the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906?



Earth Control

§  What were TR’s priorities regarding the environment?  How did he achieve his goals?

§  Explain the difference between a conservationist and a preservationist?


The “Roosevelt Panic” of 1907 & The Rough Rider Thunders Out

§  Why did Republican bosses consider TR “as dangerous and unpredictable as a rattlesnake?”

§  What contributions of TR’s lasted beyond his presidency?


Taft: A round Peg in a Square Hole and The Dollar Goes Aboard as a Diplomat

§  What was “Dollar Diplomacy?”

§  Why did Congress urge Wall Street bankers to pump dollars into Central American countries?


Taft the Trustbuster

§  Was Taft a Trustbuster?  What is your evidence?


Taft Splits the Republican Party

§  How were the progressive members of the Republican Party “betrayed” by Taft?

§  Include the tariff issue and the dismissal of Pinchot.

§  Define Roosevelt’s  New Nationalism.


The Taft-Roosevelt Rupture

§  Why did TR choose to run for a third presidential term?


Discussion Questions

1.      Were progressive reformers truly the friends of “the people” that they claimed to be?

2.      Should Theodore Roosevelt be considered one of our greatest presidents?

3.     Compare and contrast the Republican party of Roosevelt and Taft to the Republican party of today.

4.      What was the most important law passed during Roosevelt’s presidency?



Chapter 29 Study Guide 

Wilsonian Progressivism at Home and Abroad, 1912-1916


The “Bull Moose” Campaign of 1912

§  Who were the candidates (and parties) in the election of 1912?

§  Define Wilson’s New Freedom (see also opening quote from the chapter)

§  Compare and Contrast New Freedom and TR’s New Nationalism.


Woodrow Wilson” A Minority President

§  What were the results of the 1912 Presidential Election?


Wilson: The Idealist in Politics

§  What strengths and weaknesses did Woodrow Wilson bring to the presidency? 

§  Describe Wilson’s idealism. 


Wilson Tackles the Tariff

§  What did Wilson consider “the triple wall of privilege?”  Why is he called a Jeffersonian?

§  Why was the Underwood Tariff considered a landmark in tax legislation?

            Identify 16th amendment


Wilson Battles the Bankers

§  What were the defects in the Civil War National Banking Act?

§  What was the purpose of and major components of the 1913 Federal Reserve Act?

§  How was the amount of money in circulation increased by the new Federal Reserve Act?


The President Tames the Trusts

§  What was the purpose of the Federal Trade Commission?

§  What was the purpose of and major components of the Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914?


Wilsonian Progressivism at High Tide

§  How did Wilson assist the farmers?

§  How did Wilson assist laborers?

§  What is Workers Compensation Insurance?

§  What was Wilson’s record on racial equality?


New Directions in Foreign Policy

§  What was Wilson’s position on Dollar Diplomacy?

§  What actions did Wilson take that departed from the policies of his predecessors?

§  What actions did Wilson take that continued the policies of his predecessors?


Moralistic Diplomacy in Mexico

§  Why were tensions rising between the US and Mexico during Wilson’s presidency?

§  Who was Pancho Villa?

§  What was Wilson’s action in Mexico?  How did Wilson justify US intervention in Mexico?




Thunder Across the Sea

§  How did Americans respond to the start of war in Europe?


A Precarious Neutrality

§  Why were most Americans Anti-German?


American Earns Blood Money

§  How did the European War impact American industry?

§  Review the chart on page 690.  What trends do you notice regarding US exports to belligerents?  How did Britain help bring this about?

§  Why did Germany resort to submarine (u-boat) warfare?

§  What was the significance of the sinking of the Lusitania?

§  What was the Sussex pledge?  Why was it seen as a victory for Wilson?


Wilson Wins Reelection in 1916

§  Interpret the editorial cartoon on page 693. Why is TR portrayed as a War Hawk?

§  What were the key issues in the 1916 Presidential Election?


Discussion Questions

  1. What was the most important law passed during Wilson’s presidency?
  2. Do you think that the US was truly neutral during the first few years of World War I?
  3. What is your opinion of the 16th amendment?


Practice Essay Questions


Assess Theodore Roosevelt’s impact on American politics and foreign policy.


Compare and Contrast the philosophies and policies of presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.


To what extent did Progressive era reforms significantly alter American society and to what extent did they accept the status quo?


AP US History

Unit 7 Study Guides

The Emergence of Modern America 1918-1938



Chapter 30 Study Guide 

The War to End War (1917-1918)


War by Act of Germany and Wilsonian Idealism Enthroned

§  Why did Germany resume unrestricted submarine warfare?

§  What was the significance of the Zimmermann Note?

§  What were the reasons for the US declaration of war against Germany?

§  How did Wilson defend his charge to “make the world safe for democracy?”


Wilson’s Fourteen Potent Points

§  What were the most important of the Fourteen Points?

§  If adopted, what did Wilson hope the 14 points would accomplish?

§  How did the Fourteen Points represent Wilson’s moral leadership?

§  What was the League of Nations?  Why was it considered the “capstone point?”


Creel Manipulates Minds

§  What was the purpose of the Committee on Public Information (Creel organization)?

§  How does this organization typify American war mobilization?


Enforcing Loyalty and Stifling Dissent

§  What percentage of the US population were German American?

§  How did the Espionage Act and Sedition Act represent Americans fear of foreigners?

§  What was the ruling by the Supreme Court in Schenck v. United States?


The Nation’s Factories Go to War and Workers in Wartime

§  What was the purpose of the War Industries Board?

§  What was the purpose of the National War Labor Board?

§  Contrast the positions of the AF of L and the IWW regarding Allied cause.

§  What was the result of the Steel Strike in 1919?

§  What conditions did African-Americans who migrated North encounter?

            Identify “Great Migration


Suffering Until Suffrage

§  How did war mobilization provide new momentum to the suffrage fight?

§  What is the 19th Amendment?


Forging a War Economy

§  Who led the Food Administration?  What was the purpose of this agency?

§  Why was the 18th Amendment passed?

§  Why did Wilson prefer voluntary means of mobilizing the economy?


Making Plowboys into Doughboys

§  Who was required to register for the draft?  (This is the Selective Service Act of 1917)

§  How were black troops treated in the US military during World War I?


Fighting in France-Belatedly

§  Why and when did Russia withdraw from the war?

§  What’s a doughboy?


America Helps Hammer the “Hun.”

§  How heavily did the US suffer in comparison with the nations of Europe? (Chart p. 708)

§  Who was General John Pershing?


The Fourteen Points Disarm Germany

§  What was the significance of 11/11/11?

§  What were the main contributions by the US towards the Allied victory?


Wilson Steps Down from Olympus and An Idealist Battles the Imperialists in Paris

§  How was partisan conflict returning to American politics?

§  Who was Henry Cabot Lodge?

§  Which nations made up the Big Four at the Peace Conference?

§  Why did Wilson argue against the parceling out of the former colonies of the Central Powers?


Hammering Out the Treaty

§  How was Wilson facing conflicting pressure from Europe and the US Senate?

§  Why were US senators against the League of Nations?


The Peace Treaty That Bred a New War

§  What were the final terms of the Treaty of Versailles?

§  To what degree was Wilson’s idealism evident in the Treaty of Versailles?


The Domestic Parade of Prejudice and Wilson’s Tour and Collapse (1919)

§  Besides republican senators, what other American groups were against the treaty?

§  Why did Wilson “take his case to the country” with an extensive tour?

§  What was the result of the tour?


Defeat Through Deadlock

§  Why were critics concerned about Article X?

§  What role did Senator Lodge play in the US Senate defeat of the treaty?

§  How much is Wilson to blame for the defeat of the treaty?


The “Solemn Referendum” of 1920

§  What were the key issues in the Election of 1920?

§  What was Harding’s position on the League of Nations?

§  How did Harding represent “normalcy?”


The Betrayal of Great Expectations

§  What arguments can be made to suggest that the United States reluctance to join the League was “tragically shortsighted?”

§  Why did Americans prefer isolationism?


Woodrow Wilson: Realist or Idealist?

§  What arguments are made to support Wilson as a realist?  Idealist?


Discussion Questions

1.      What is your opinion of the Schenck v. United States decision?

2.      In the end, was it a mistake for the US to enter World War I?

3.      What is the single greatest reason for the US to enter World War I? 

What was the single greatest reason for the US to invade Iraq in 2003?

4.      What was Senator Lodge’s motivation in defeating the treaty of Versailles?


Chapter 31 Study Guide 

American Life in the “Roaring 20s” 1919-1929


Seeing Red

§  What was the Red Scare?

§  What was the result of the Palmer Raids?

§  How was the red scare a “godsend to conservative businesspeople”?

§  Why did the Red Scare decrease the influence of labor unions?

§  What does the Sacco & Vanzetti case reveal about the US in the 20s?

§  Define:  Communism, Bolshevik


Hooded Hoodlums of the KKK

§  What groups were targeted by the KKK?

§  Where and why did the KKK re-emerge during the mid 20s?

§  Read the tan box on p. 730 which summarizes Hiram Wesley Evan’s views. 


Stemming the Foreign Flood

§  Why were Americans isolationist and anti immigrant in the 1920s?

§  What was the Emergency Quota Act of 1921? Explain the national origins quota system.

§  What was the Immigration Act of 1924?  What was its effect?

§  What arguments were made for and against “cultural pluralism?”


The Prohibition Experiment & The Golden Age of Gangsterism

§  What was the 18th Amendment?

§  What were the effects of the “noble experiment?”  Was it a success or failure?

§  What were speakeasies?

§  Who was Al Capone?  Why did prohibition spur the rise of organized crime?


Monkey Business in Tennessee

§  Define fundamentalism.

§  What was the result of the Scopes Monkey Trial?  Why was the case significant?

§  Why is the trial result considered a “hollow victory” for the fundamentalists?





The Mass-Consumption Economy

§  Why was advertising so important to the American economy?

§  How did sports become big business in the 1920s?

§  What role did borrowing play in the 1920s economy?


Putting America on Rubber Tires & The Advent of the Gasoline Age

§  Define “Fordism.”

§  What other industries grew as a result of automobile production?

§  What impact did the production and availability of the automobile have on the US?


Humans Develop Wings

§  What were the accomplishments of the Wright Brothers and Charles Lindbergh?


The Radio Revolution

§  What were impacts of the radio revolution?


Hollywood’s Filmland Fantasies

§  What was the significance of “Birth of a Nation?”

§  What was the significance of “The Jazz Singer?” (p. 739)

§  How did the “standardization of tastes” affect America?


The Dynamic Decade

§  What first did the 1920 census reveal?

§  Who was Margaret Sanger?

§  How did the Flapper epitomize some of the young women of the 1920s? 

§  How did Jazz symbolize the 1920s?

§  Define the Harlem Renaissance.

§  Who was Langston Hughes?

§  What were Marcus Garvey’s ideas for improving the lives of blacks?


Cultural Liberation

§  How did literature reflect society during the 1920s?

            F. Scott Fitzgerald

            Ernest Hemingway

§  Who was Frank Lloyd Wright?   

§  Why is the section entitled “cultural liberation?”


Wall Street’s Big Bull Market

§  Define “bull market.”

§  Define buying stocks “on margin.”

§  What policies were supported by Secretary of Treasury Andrew Mellon?

§  How did Mellon’s policies benefit the rich?


Discussion Questions

  1. Do you think that the factors that made the KKK popular in the 1920s are still powerful in the US today?
  2. Which innovation of the 1920s had the greatest impact on the development of the US:  the automobile, the radio, or the airplane?  Defend your answer.
  3. Give a current example of a “culture war” in the US today.  Do not use the issue of Evolution v. creationism.


Chapter 32 Study Guide 

The Politics of Boom and Bust, 1920-1932


The Republican “old Guard” Returns

§  What were Harding’s presidential weaknesses?

§  What was the “Ohio Gang?”


GOP Reaction at the Throttle

§  How did the “Old Guard” expand laissez-faire?

§  What progressive legislation was axed by the Supreme Court?

§  What is a “reactionary?”


The Aftermath of War

§  What happened to wartime economic controls after the war ended?

§  How did war veterans organize after the war?  What did they want?


America Seeks Benefits Without Burdens

§  Why did President Harding support disarmament?

§  What was the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928?

§  Why does the text suggest that America was being lulled into a false sense of security?

§  Although isolationist and anti-League, why does the Harding Administration continue to conduct foreign policy?


Hiking the Tariff Higher

§  Why did the Republican presidents of the 20s support tariffs?

§  What was the 1922 Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law?

§  How did the American tariffs impact foreign countries?


The Stench of Scandal

§  What was the Teapot Dome Scandal?  How significant was it?


Frustrated Farmers

§  How were farmers caught in a boom-or-bust cycle?

§  Define the McNary-Haugen Bill.  What was President Coolidge’s response to the bill?


A Three-Way Race for the White House in 1924

§  Who won the Election of 1924?




Foreign-Policy Flounderings

§  To what degree did the US stay isolated during Coolidge’s administration?

§  What arguments did allied nations in debt to the US use for not paying back its WWI debts?


Unraveling the Debt Knot

§  What is the difference between reparations and debt?

§  Why were the French and British upset with the US loans to Germany?

§  Identify the Dawes Plan of 1924.


The Triumph of Herbert Hoover, 1928

§  Why did Smith’s Catholicism hamper his chances for the presidency?

§  Why were Hoover’s “Whistle-stop” campaigns popular?


President Hoover’s First Moves

§  What were Hoover’s first moves to assist the farmers?  How successful were these programs?

§  What was the 1930 Hawley-Smoot Tariff?  How did foreign countries react to it?


The Great Crash Ends the Golden Twenties

§  Why did the stock market crash in October, 1929?

§  What were the immediate results of the Stock Market Crash?


Hooked on the Horn of Plenty

§  How did overproduction help cause the Great Depression?

§  How did overexpansion of credit help cause the Great Depression?

§  What were other major causes of the depression?


Rugged Times for Rugged individualists

§  Explain Hoover’s “Rugged Individualism” response to the Great Depression.

§  How did Hoover’s policies change over time?


Hoover Battles the Great Depression

§  What public works programs did Hoover support?

§  What was the goal of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation?

§  Define “pump-priming.”

§  What pro-union legislation did Hoover support?

§  Was Hoover a laissez-faire conservative?


Routing the Bonus Army in Washington

§  What was the BEF?

§  What demands did they make of Hoover?

§  What was Hoover’s response to the Bonus Army and how did it affect his political future?


Japanese Militarists Attack China

§  What was the world-wide reaction to Japan’s attack on China?

§  Define the Stimson Doctrine of 1932.


Hoover Pioneers the Good Neighbor Policy

§  Describe Hoover’s policies toward Latin America.

§  Why did economic imperialism become less popular after 1929?


Discussion Questions

  1. “Convinced that industry, thrift, and self-reliance were the virtues that had made America great, President Hoover feared that a government doling out doles would weaken, perhaps destroy, the national fiber.” (p. 764).  Explain Hoover’s thinking in your own words.  To what extent do you agree with him?
  2. Life in 1928 was dramatically different from life in 1919.  What is the single greatest contributor to this change?


Chapter 33 Study Guide 

The Great Depression and the New Deal


FDR: Politician in a Wheelchair

§  Describe Eleanor Roosevelt’s role as first lady.

§  Describe FDR’s political appeal.


Presidential Hopefuls of 1932 and Hoover’s Humiliation in 1932

§  What was the “brain trust?”

§  What was the result of the 1932 Presidential Election?

§  What political shift did blacks begin to make in 1932?

§  What was the unemployment rate when FDR took office?


FDR and the Three R’s: Relief, Recovery, Reform

§  Explain the goals of the New Deal using the Three Rs.

§  What progressive ideals were embraced by New Dealers?


Roosevelt Manages the Money

§  What were fireside chats?

§  What’s the FDIC?

§  Did FDR support inflation?  Why/why not?


Creating Jobs for the Jobless

§  Define “prime the pump.”

§  Explain the purpose of:


The Federal Emergency Relief Administration

The Agricultural Adjustment Act & Home Owners’ Loan Corporation


A Day for Every Demagogue

§  Why are demagogues a danger during depression?

§  What alternatives did Senator Huey Long propose in dealing with the depression?

§  What did Dr. Francis Townsend promise?

§  What was the purpose/importance of the WPA?


New Visibility for Women

§  Who were Frances Perkins and Mary McLeod Bethune?  What do they symbolize?


Helping Industry and Labor

§  What was the purpose of the NRA?

§  What was the reaction by the business leaders to the NRA?

§  Why did the Supreme Court declare the NRA unconstitutional?

§  Identify the PWA.  What other programs was it similar to?

§  Why was the 21st Amendment passed?


Paying Farmers Not to Farm

§  How did the AAA tackle the problem of overproduction?  Why was it controversial?

§  How did the AAA provoke a battle between the New Dealers and the Supreme Court?


Dust Bowls and Black Blizzards

§  How pervasive were dust bowls?

§  What was the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934?


Battling Bankers and Big Business

§  What was the purpose of the SEC?


The TVA Harnesses the Tennessee

§  What was the TVA?

§  Why did critics charge the TVA “was creeping socialism in concrete?”


Housing and Social Security

§  What controversies surrounded the housing programs initiated by FDR?

§  What was the Social Security Act of 1935?  What was its effect then and now?


A New Deal for Labor

§  Identify the National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act of 1935.

§  Who was John Lewis?

§  What was the significance of the CIO?

§  What is the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938?

§  Why were unions thriving during the Roosevelt Administration?


Landon Challenges “the Champ”

§  How did FDR appeal to the “forgotten man” prior to the Election of 1936?

§  Analyze the coalition of voters who kept FDR in power (New Deal Coalition)?





Nine Old Men on the Bench and The Court Changes Course

§  What changes did the 20th Amendment make?

§  What challenges did the US Supreme Court confront FDR with?

§  What proposal did FDR have in dealing with the “old men” on the bench?

§  Why was this so-called “court-packing” scheme so controversial?

§  How was the situation resolved?


Twilight of the New Deal

§  What was the cause and effect of the 1937 Roosevelt Recession?

§  What is deficit spending?

§  Identify John Maynard Keynes and define Keynesianism.


New Deal or Raw Deal? & FDR’s Balance Sheet

§  What criticisms did FDR’s New Deal receive?

§  What praise do his supporters offer?

§  How was FDR similar to Jefferson?  To Hamilton?


Discussion Questions

1.      What grade do you think FDR earned for dealing with the Great Depression?  Justify your evaluation.

2.      Do you believe that congress should be able to remove Supreme Court justices who are “out of touch” with public opinion?  Why/why not?

3.      Do you believe the New Deal went too far, not far enough, or was just right?  Explain. 

4.      What do you believe FDR’s #1 goal as president was?


AP US History

Unit 8 Study Guides

World War II


Chapter 34 Study Guide

Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War


The London Conference

§  Why did FDR reject the London Economic Conference?


Freedom For (From?) the Filipinos and Recognition of the Russians

§  Why & how did the US “free” the Philippines?

§  Why did FDR recognize the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR/Soviet Union) in 1933?


Becoming a Good Neighbor

§  Why did FDR pursue the Good Neighbor policy?

§  What were the results of the Good Neighbor policy?


Secretary Hull’s Reciprocal Trade Agreements

§  What was the philosophy of Hull’s trade policy?


Storm-Cellar Isolationism

§  Define isolationism. 

§  Define totalitarianism.

§  Identify: Hitler, Mussolini, Tojo

§  How did the US react to rising fascism?


Congress Legislates Neutrality

§  What were the conclusions of the Nye Committee?

§  Describe the Neutrality Acts.

§  How did they represent a shift in US policy away from freedom of the seas?

§  “storm cellar neutrality proved to be shortsighted.”  Why?


America Dooms Loyalist Spain

§  How did the US respond to the Spanish civil war?

§  Was the US increasing military spending to prepare for the possibility of war?


Appeasing Japan and Germany

§  How did the US react to Japanese aggression in Asia?

§  What were the results of the Munich Conference (1938)?

§  Define appeasement.  What makes it both attractive and dangerous?


Hitler’s Belligerency and US Neutrality

§  What was the importance of the Hitler-Stalin Pact?

§  What caused WWII to start in Europe?

§  How did the 1939 Neutrality Act show a slight shift in US policy (cash & carry)?


Refugees from the Holocaust (p. 808-809)

§  Evaluate US efforts to aid European Jews.

§  Give an example of the US assisting European Jews and an example of the US withholding aid.


The Fall of France

§  Describe Hitler’s conquest of Europe.

§  What effect did the fall of France have on American public opinion?

§  What made the 1940 US draft unique?


Examining the Evidence

§  What does the data reveal about US public opinion toward war?


Bolstering Britain

§  What was the bases for destroyers deal?

§  What were the two sides on the debate over aiding the allies?


FDR Shatters the Two-term Tradition

§  Why did voters elect FDR to a 3rd term?


Congress Passes the Landmark Lend-Lease Law

§  Describe the Lend-Lease Law.

§  What was its significance?

§  Explain how the US became the “arsenal of democracy.”


Hitler’s Assault on the USSR Spawns the Atlantic Charter

§  Why did Hitler attack the USSR in June of 1941?

§  How did this attack change the war?

§  What is the Atlantic Charter?  How was it similar to Wilson’s 14 points?


US Destroyers and Hitler’s U-boats Clash

§  What was the purpose of convoys?

§  Describe the undeclared naval war between the US & Germany.


Surprise Assault on Pearl Harbor

§  Why was the US embargo toward Japan so crippling?

§  Why did Japan choose war?

§  To what extent was the attack a surprise?

§  What were the results of the 12-07-1941 attack?


America’s Transformation from Bystander to Belligerent

§  Why did the US enter WWII?


Discussion Questions

1.       Should the US have gone to war sooner?  Why/why not?

2.      What comparisons and contrasts can you draw between 12-07-1941 and 09-11-2001

3.      Churchill believed that if the US provided the tools, the British could win the war.  Why is it difficult in current day for the US to merely provide the tools without providing the necessary troops to fight wars?



Chapter 35 Study Guide 

America in World War II


The Allies Trade Space for Time

§  Why was time such a critical commodity to the US at the start of the war?


The Shock of War

§  Why did the United State intern over 110,000 Japanese Americans?

§  Describe and evaluate the process of internment (see also p. 824-825).

§  What was the verdict in the 1944 Supreme Court case Korematsu v. US?


Building the War Machine

§  Why was increasing production such a critical part of the war effort?

§  What was the purpose of the War Production Board?

§  What was the result of the Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act of 1943?


Manpower and Womanpower

§  What were the braceros?

§  Describe the role of women in the war effort.

§  Identify Rosie the Riveter.


Wartime Migrations

§  How were African Americans impacted by the US war effort?

§  What was the purpose of the Fair Employment Practices Commission?

§  Define “Double V.”

§  What was CORE?

§  What role did American Indians play in the US war effort?


Holding the Home Front

§  Explain how the US war effort contributed to the ending of the Great Depression.

§  What was the economic impact of World War II?


The Rising Sun in the Pacific

§  Which American outposts did the Japanese attack?

§  What was the Bataan Death March?

§  Who was Douglas MacArthur?


Japan’s High Tide at Midway

§  What was significant about the Battle of Midway?


American Leapfrogging Toward Tokyo

§  Describe “leapfrogging” by the US military in the South Pacific.


The Allied Halting of Hitler & A Second Front from North Africa to Rome

§  What role did “wolf packs” play for the Germans?

§  Why was there fighting in Northern Africa?

§  How was the Soviet Union aiding the allied cause?  At what price?

§  When and why did Italy drop out of the war?


D-Day: June 6, 1944

§  What was the result of the Tehran conference?

§  Describe the purpose and results of the D-Day invasion.

§  Who was Dwight D. Eisenhower?


FDR: The Fourth-Termite of 1944 and Roosevelt Defeats Dewey

§  Who was FDR’s running mate in the Election of ’44?

§  Why did voters select FDR a 4th time?

§  What decisions were made by the Big Three at Yalta in Feb. 1945 (see p. 863).


The Last Days of Hitler

§  Describe the Battle of the Bulge?

§  When did Germany finally surrender?


Japan Dies Hard

§  What was significant regarding the Battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa?

§  Why did the US need to fight for occupation of these Islands?

§  What were kamikazes?


The Atomic Bombs

§  What is the significance of “unconditional surrender?”

§  What was the result of the Potsdam Conference?

§  Define the Manhattan Project.

§  What were the results of the dropping of the atomic bombs?

§  When did Japan surrender?


The Allies Triumphant

§  Contrast the US economic and physical condition at the end of the war to the rest of the allies and axis nations.


Discussion Questions

1.       What is your reaction to the picture on page 823?

2.      Should the US have used the atomic bombs on Japan?

3.      Compare and contrast FDR’s handling of the Great Depression to his handling of WWII?


AP US History

Unit 9 Study Guides

Post-World War II America



Chapter 36 Study Guide 

The Cold War Begins, 1945-1952


Postwar Economic Anxieties

§  Why was the Taft-Hartley Act opposed by unions?

§  What legislation was passed by Democratic administration to forestall an economic downturn?

1946 Employment Act

Serviceman’s Readjustment Act (GI Bill)


The Long Economic Boom

§  Describe the “fantastic eruption of affluence” post 1948.

§  How did women enjoy this postwar prosperity?


The Roots of Postwar Prosperity

§  What was causing the increase in American prosperity and productivity?

§  What role did massive government spending play in creating economic prosperity?

§  Using the chart on page 856, what trends occurred in defense spending?

§  What was the result of great availability of petroleum?  Why was energy so cheap?


The Smiling Sunbelt

§  Who was Dr. Benjamin Spock?

§  Define the “Sunbelt.”

§  What is the significance of the population shift from the North?


The Rush to the Suburbs

§  How did government policies encourage movement to the suburbs?

§  How did Levittown represent suburban development?

§  How did the growth of suburbs affect the nation?


The Postwar Baby Boom

§  Define “baby boom.”

§  What was the economic impact of the baby boom?  What is it today?


Truman: The “Gutty” Man from Missouri

§  What characteristics did Truman bring to the presidency?


Yalta: Bargain or Betrayal

§  What were the agreements made at Yalta, February, 1945?  Which agreements were kept?


The United States the Soviet Union

§  What actions by the US and Great Britain caused skepticism by the Soviet Union?

§  Why did the Soviets want a “sphere of influence?”

§  How would the American public be influenced by the map on p. 864?


Shaping the Postwar World

§  The Bretton Woods Conference:  What is the significance of the IMF and the World Bank?

§  Which countries comprise the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council?

§  How did the Senate’s reaction to the UN contrast to the reaction to the League of Nations?


The Problem of Germany

§  What was the purpose of the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials?

§  Describe the division of Germany following the war.

§  What countries were behind the “Iron Curtain?”

§  What was the purpose and final result of the 1948-1949 Berlin Blockade?


The Cold War Congeals

§  Define Cold War.

§  Who was George F. Kennan?  What policies did he support?

§  Define the Policy of Containment.

§  Explain the Truman Doctrine.  How would it guide American policy in years to come?

§  What was the Marshall Plan?  Did it achieve its purposes?

§  Explain Truman’s decision to officially recognize the state of Israel.


America Begins to Rearm

§  What departments/organizations were components of the 1947 National Security Act?

§  What is NATO?  What is its significance?


Reconstruction and Revolution in Asia

§  Contrast post-war Japan and China.

§  What was the result of the Chinese Civil War between Mao Zedong’s communists and Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi)?

§  When did the Soviets explode an atomic bomb?  How did the US react?

§  What was the significance of the development of the hydrogen bomb?


Ferreting out Alleged Communists

§  What were the driving forces behind the new Red Scare?

§  What was the purpose and result of HUAC?

§  Who was Senator Joseph McCarthy?  What role did he play?

§  Explain the term “McCarthyism.”

§  Who was Richard Nixon?  What role did he play?

§  Who were the Rosenbergs?  Alger Hiss?


Democratic Divisions in 1948

§  Identify the campaign issues and candidates in the Presidential Election of 1948. 

§  Who were the Dixiecrats and Strom Thurmond?  What was their appeal?

§  Why did Truman win?

§  Define Truman’s “Fair Deal.”


The Korean Volcano Erupts (1950) and The Military Seesaw in Korea

§  What were the causes of the Korean Conflict?

§  What is the significance of NSC-68?

§  Why is the Korean Conflict considered a “police action?”

§  How did the Chinese become involved in the war?

§  Why was General MacArthur removed from duty by President Truman?


Discussion Questions

1.       How well do you think the Truman administration handled the emerging Cold War?

2.      What similarities and differences do you see between the Cold War and today’s War on terrorism?

3.      What do you believe is the primary reason for economic prosperity in the US following World War II?

4.      Refer to the picture on page 866.  Do you believe the Nuremberg War Crime Trials were fair trials?


Chapter 37 Study Guide 

The Eisenhower Era, 1952-1960


Affluence and its Anxieties

§  How did science and technology drive economic growth during the post-war era?

§  Using the chart on page 883, what trends occurred in the distribution of working women?

§  What is the significance of the shift from “blue collar” America to “white collar” America?

§  How was the Cult of Domesticity projected in popular culture?

§  How did 1950s television programs reflect “white, suburban life?”  Were they accurate?

§  What is the significance of Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique?


Consumer Culture in the Fifties

§  Describe the consumer culture of the 1950s.

§  Why did a consumer culture flourish in the 50s?

§  How were traditional values being challenged in the 1950s?

§  What is the thesis of Galbraith’s The Affluent Society?

§  Using the top picture on p. 885, what is considered the service sector and why is it booming?


The Advent of Eisenhower

§  What made Eisenhower an excellent candidate for the 1952 Presidential Election?

§  What was the result of the Korean Conflict in 1953?


The Rise and fall of Joseph McCarthy

§  What fueled Senator McCarthy’s communist witch hunt? His demise?

§  Identify the Army-McCarthy hearings.

§  What lessons can be learned from the McCarthy era?


Desegregating American Society

§  What was life like in the South for African-Americans in 1950? 

§  Give examples of Jim Crow practices.

§  Who was Emmett Till?  How did his lynching help ignite the civil rights movement?

§  Who was Thurgood Marshall?  What role did he play in bringing about the end of segregation?

§  What events precipitated the Montgomery bus boycott?

§  Using the brown box on p. 891., why might withholding patronage be an effective protest tool?



Seeds of the Civil Rights Revolution

§  When did President Truman end segregation in federal civil service and the armed forces?

§  Who assumed leadership in the civil rights movement after Truman left office?

§  Identify Earl Warren and explain his significance.

§  What events led to the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision? 

§  Explain why this is a landmark case.

§  How did Southern states react to the pressure to desegregate?

§  Who were the Little Rock 9?

§  What is the significance of the Greensboro, North Carolina sit-in?

§  Define the SCLC and SNCC.


Eisenhower Republicanism at Home

§  Define Eisenhower’s “dynamic conservatism”.

§  What actions supported Eisenhower’s philosophy of small-government?

§  How is the Interstate Highway Act of 1956 an exception to this philosophy?


A “New Look” in Foreign Policy

§  What was Secretary of Defense John Foster Dulles’ “New Look?”

§  Did Dulles achieve what he set out to do? 

§  Who was Nikita Khrushchev?


The Vietnam Nightmare

§  Who was Ho Chi Minh?  Who were the Viet Minh?

§  What were the results of the Geneva Conference following the French fall at Dienbienphu?

§  How did Vietnam pit Americans democratic ideals against its policy of containment?


Cold War Crises in Europe and the Middle East

§  How did the CIA intervene in Iran in 1953?  What were the short and long-term consequences?

§  How did some NATO countries respond to Egyptian President Nasser’s action to nationalize the Suez Canal?

§  What were the results of the Suez crisis?

§  Define the Eisenhower Doctrine of 1957.

§  What is OPEC?


Round Two for Ike

§  Trace the beginnings of the Space Race.

Sputnik—impact on US policy



National Defense and Education Act


The Continuing Cold War

§  What thaws in the Cold War occurred towards the end of Eisenhower’s administration?

            Suspension of nuclear tests

            Khrushchev visits the US

§  How did an American U-2 spy plane derail the peaceful momentum? 


Cuba’s Castroism Spells Communism

§  Who is Fidel Castro?  What challenges did his rise to power create for the US?

§  Why does the US have an embargo on trade with Cuba?

§  Did Cuba’s turn toward Communism violate the Monroe Doctrine?


Kennedy Challenges Nixon for the Presidency

§  Identify the candidates and the issues surrounding the 1960 Presidential Election.

§  How did television affect the race? (Nixon-Kennedy TV debates of 1960)


An Old General Fades Away

§  What is the 22nd Amendment?

§  When did Alaska and Hawaii attain statehood?

§  What were Eisenhower’s greatest achievements and failures as President?


The Life of the Mind in Postwar America



Discussion Questions

1.       How was the 1950s a decade of conformity but also a decade of cultural rebellion?

2.      “As the decade closed, Americans were well on their way to becoming free-spending consumers of mass-produced, standardized products which were advertised on the electronic medium of television.”  (p. 886).  How does this consumerism effect the US?

3.      To what extent do you believe that a massive military buildup and the possible massive retaliation acts as a deterrent for foreign aggression?

4.      Similar to fear of communism during the Cold War, how does US fear of terrorist acts influence US foreign policy today?


Chapter 38 Study Guide 

The Stormy Sixties, 1960-1968


Kennedy’s “New Frontier” Spirit

§  Identify Robert Kennedy.

§  Why was JFK’s ascendancy to the presidency exciting for many? 


The New Frontier at Home

§  What is the “New Frontier”?

§  By slashing taxes and putting more money into private hands, JFK acted “republican.”  Explain.

§  When did the first Americans land on the moon?


Rumblings in Europe

§  When and why was the Berlin War built?

§  Who was Charles de Gaulle?  What were his foreign policy goals?


Foreign Flare-ups and “Flexible Response”

§  Identify Robert McNamara.

§  Explain the “flexible response” foreign policy and how it was different from the “New Look.”


Stepping into the Vietnam Quagmire

§  Define quagmire.

§  What was the US trying to accomplish in Vietnam?  How did we go about it?

§  Why did Diem loose American support?

§  Define “modernization theory.”  Do you see any modern parallels?


Cuban Confrontations

§  What was the Alliance For Progress?  Did it work?

§  What was the Bay of Pigs fiasco?

§  Trace the origins of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

§  How did the crisis bring the world to the brink of nuclear war?

§  How did the Crisis end?  How were US-Soviet relations affected?

§  Define “détente.”


The Struggle for Civil Rights

§  Why did supporting the Civil Rights movement create political problems for Kennedy?

§  What were the Freedom Rides?

§  Identify:

Ø  J. Edgar Hoover

Ø  James Meredith, desegregation of Ol’ Miss

Ø  Birmingham campaign

Ø  Bull Connor (from lecture)

Ø  Church bombings (1963 Birmingham Baptist Church bombing)

§     What was significant about the March on Washington?


The Killing of Kennedy

§  When and where was JFK killed?

§  Who were Jack Ruby and Lee Harvey Oswald?


The LBJ Brand on the Presidency

§  What experience did Lyndon B Johnson bring to the White House?

§  What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 do?

§  What is the EEOC?

§  What did Michael Harrington’s The Other America reveal?


Johnson Battles Goldwater in 1964

§  Describe the clash between Johnson and Goldwater.

§  What events occurred in Vietnam which led up to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?

§  What was the importance of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?


The Great Society Congress

§  Why was LBJ able to pass so much legislation?

§  How did Johnson fight his War on Poverty?  How successful was he?

§  What were the Great Society’s Big Four legislative achievements?

§  What are Medicare and Medicaid?

§  What was the effect of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965?

§  What criticisms did conservatives make regarding the Great Society programs?




Battling for Black Rights

§  What voting obstacles were occurring in the South which required the passage of the 24th Amendment and the Voting Rights Act of 1965?

§  Describe the violence that civil rights supporters faced in the South.


Black Power

§  Why was the Voting Rights Act the end of an era?

§  What does the term “black power” mean? 

§  Explain the long, hot summers (race riots in the late 1960s)

§  What conditions lead to the emergence of Black Power?

§  Identify: Malcolm X, Black Panthers, and Stokely Carmichael, King assassination


Combating Communism in Two Hemispheres

§  How did LBJ deal with the revolt in the Dominican Republic?

§  Define Operation Rolling Thunder.  How did it mark a change in US strategy?

§  Describe LBJ’s policy of escalation in Vietnam.


Vietnam Vexations

§  How did the Six-Day War in 1967 effect the Middle East?

§  What territories did the Israelis occupy following the 6-day war?

§  What is the PLO? Who was the leader?

§  Why was public opinion turning against the war? 

§  How did LBJ abuse his authority? (see “Cointelpro”)

§  Define “doves” and “hawks”


Vietnam Topples Johnson

§  What was the Tet Offensive?  What was its significance?

§  Why did Johnson choose not to run for re-election in 1968?


The Presidential Sweepstakes of 1968

§  What candidates vied for the democratic nomination?  Who got it?  Why?

§  Describe the violence at the Democratic national convention.

§  Who represented the Republican party?  What was their platform?

§  Who is George C. Wallace?

§  Using the map on page 932, what were the results of the 1968 Election?


The Obituary of Lyndon Johnson

§  What is Johnson’s legacy?


The Cultural Upheaval of the 1960s

§  Describe the various social movements that occurred in the 1960s.

§  How might this rebellion cause a conservative backlash?

§  Explain the skepticism by Beat writers and intellectuals like Allen Ginsberg & Jack Kerouac?



Discussion Questions

1.       Many consider 1968 to be one of the most pivotal years in American history.  How might this year be considered a turning point?

2.      Compare and contrast the Vietnam War to the War in Iraq. 

3.      What is your favorite picture in Chapter 38 and why?

4.      Regarding the commercial identified on page 921, do you believe fear is an effective campaign tool?


Chapter 39 Study Guide 

The Stalemated Seventies, 1968-1980


Sources of Stagnation

§  Describe the economic problems the US faced in the 1970s.

§  Define stagnation & “stagflation”

§  Why is inflation an economic problem?

§  How does increased military spending and welfare spending cause inflation?


Nixon “Vietnamizes” the War

§  Define Vietnamization.

§  What was the Nixon Doctrine?

§  Who was considered the “Silent Majority”?

§  Why did the burdens of the draft fall upon the least privileged?

§  Identify the 1968 My Lai massacre.


Cambodianizing the Vietnam War

§  Why did Nixon order the attack on Cambodia in April, 1970?

§  What is significant about the shooting at Kent State University and Jackson State in 1970?

§  Define “doves” and “hawks”.

§  What is the 26th Amendment?

§  What were the Pentagon Papers?  How were they important?


Nixon’s Detente with Beijing (Peking) and Moscow

§  Define détente.

§  Identify Henry Kissinger.

§  When and why did Nixon visit the Soviet Union and China?

§  What was the significance of the SALT Treaty? 


A New Team on the Supreme Beach

§  What is the historical legacy of the Warren Court?

§  Identify the ruling in the following decision:

            1965 Griswold v. Connecticut

            1963 Gideon v. Wainwright

            1966 Miranda v. Arizona

§  How did the Court infuriate religious conservatives?

§  Who was Warren Burger?  Did he live up to Nixon’s hopes?


Nixon on the Home Front

§  What social programs did Nixon support?

§  What was the Philadelphia Plan and how did it change affirmative action?

§  What environmental programs were created during the Nixon years?

§  Identify Rachel Carson & Silent Spring.

§  What was Nixon’s southern strategy?

§  Would you characterize Nixon as a liberal, moderate, or conservative?


The Nixon Landslide of 1972

§  Using the map on page 946, what were the results of the Election of 1972?

§  What were the terms that the US negotiated with North Vietnam for US withdrawal?



The Secret Bombing of Cambodia and the War Powers Act

§  Define the War Powers Act of 1973.  What motivated its passage?

§  What was the “New Isolationism”?  When did it end?


The Arab Oil Embargo and the Energy Crisis

§  Why did Arab nations put an embargo on oil in 1973?

§  How did the United States respond to this embargo?

§  What parallels do you see between the energy crisis of the 1970s and today?


Watergate and the Unmaking of a President

§  What is CREEP? 

§  What tactics did the Nixon administration use to discredit opponents? (“dirty tricks”)

§  Why did Vice President Spiro Agnew resign?

§  Who is Gerald Ford?

§  How did Nixon try to suppress his role in the scandal from being revealed?

§  What role did Nixon play in the Watergate scandal?

§  When and why did Nixon resign?


Examining the Evidence

§  Why did Nixon tape his White House conversations?


The First Unelected President

§  What was the public reaction to Ford’s pardoning of Nixon?

§  Define the Helsinki Accords.


Defeat in Vietnam

§  When did the US remove its troops from Vietnam?

§  What year did North Vietnam take over South Vietnam?

§  Overall, how did the Vietnam War effect the United States?

§  Why is the cartoon on page 953 considered a satirical view of responsibility?  What is your opinion regarding where the responsibility for the Vietnam conflict be laid?


Feminist Victories and Defeats

§  What is Title IX and how is it significant?

§  What was the 1973 ruling in Roe v. Wade?

§  Who is Phyllis Schlafly?

§  How many states short was the ERA when is died in 1982?  Why do you think it failed?


The Seventies in Black and White

§  Define “white flight.”  How did Milliken vs. Bradley encourage it?

§  What was the ruling in the Bakke case?

§  What was the 1978 ruling in United States v. Wheeler?

§  To what degree do these cases reverse the liberal 60s policies?


The Feminists (p. 958-959)

§  How did the First Wave of feminism differ from the Second Wave?

§  Review:  Betty Friedan, Feminine Mystique.


The Bicentennial Campaign and the Carter Victory

§  What political assets did Jimmy Carter have?


Carter’s Humanitarian Diplomacy

§  What were the Camp David Accords?

§  What was Carter’s foreign policy goal in Panama?


Economic and Energy Woes

§  How does inflation impact individuals on fixed incomes?

§  How does a high prime rate impact businesses?

§  How was the US impacted by the Muslim fundamentalist overthrow of the Iranian government?


Foreign Affairs and the Iranian Imbroglio

§  Who was Leonid Brezhnev?

§  What was the fate of SALT II?

§  How did Carter respond to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979?

§  Describe the Iran-Hostage Crisis.


Discussion Questions

  1. Select one topic from this chapter which you believe is a good example of a “stalemated” nation.  Explain your selection.
  2. What development during the 1970s has the greatest impact on us today?


Chapter 40 Study Guide 

The Resurgence of Conservatism, 1980-1992


The Election of Ronald Reagan, 1980

§  What was the “New Right”?

§  What characteristics/assets did Reagan possess which led him to the presidency?

§  What issues did Reagan build his 1980 campaign around?


The Reagan Revolution

§  Describe the growth in the federal government leading up to the 1980s.

§  What areas of the budget did Reagan cut?

§  Using the picture on page 969, what else occurred on Reagan’s presidential inauguration?


The Battle of the Budget

§  What tax reforms were supported by Reagan?

§  What is “supply-side” economics? (Reaganomics)


Reagan Renews the Cold War

§  Describe Reagan’s strategy in dealing with the USSR?  How was it risky?

§  Define SDI. (“Star Wars”)



Troubles Abroad

§  What events led up to the bombing of US Marine barracks in Lebanon in 1983?

§  How did Reagan react to the bombing?  Do you agree with his actions?

§  Who were the Sandinistas?

§  How did Reagan exert power in the Caribbean and Latin America?


Round Two for Reagan

§  Identify Walter Mondale, Geraldine Ferraro, Election of 1984

§  Who is Mikhail Gorbachev? How did he reshape the Cold War?

§  Define glasnost and perestroika.


The Iran-Contra Imbroglio

§  What was the Iran-Contra Affair?  What illegal actions did the Reagan administration undertake?

§  How did Reagan defend himself?  How did the scandal affect his presidency?


Reagan’s Economic Legacy

§  Why did the federal debt grow during Reagan’s administration?  

§  What were the results of the deficits of the Reagan years?


The Religious Right

§  What issues are the “religious right” most concerned with?

§  Define the Moral Majority, televangelists.


Conservation in the Courts

§  Who is Sandra Day O’Connor?

§  How did the Supreme Court move to the right in the areas of affirmative action and abortion?


Referendum on Reaganism in 1988

§  Describe the economic conditions that led to the S & L bailout.

§  What happened on October 19, 1987?


George H. W. Bush and the End of the Cold War

§  What experience did George Bush bring to the presidency?

§  What occurred in Tiananmen Square, Beijing, China in June, 1989?

§  Describe the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe and the USSR.

§  Who is Boris Yeltsin?  What led to the demise of the Soviet Union?

§  How was the end of the Cold War a mixed blessing for the US?


The Persian Gulf Crisis

§  Why did Saddam Hussein’s Iraq invade Kuwait?

§  How did the United Nations react to this invasion?

§  What was the result of Operation Desert Storm?


Bush on the Home Front

§  What is the American with Disabilities Act?

§  Why was the confirmation hearing of Clarence Thomas controversial?

§  What economic problems did Bush face at the end of his term?

§  Why did he break his no new taxes pledge and what was the result?


Chapter 42 Study Guide 

The American People Face a New Century


Economic Revolutions (p. 1012-1013)

§  How did the communications revolution affect the US economy?

§  How has scientific research raised moral dilemmas? Provoked political arguments?


The Feminist Revolution (p. 1017-1019)

§  What major changes have occurred in opportunities for women in the last 50 years?

§  What current problems do feminists hope to overcome?


The Aging of America (p. 1020-1022)

§  Explain the  “graying of America.”

§  What are the effects of having an  aging population?


The New Immigration (p. 1022-1023)

§  What are the demographics of current US immigrants?

§  How has post-1965 immigration affected the US?


Cities and Suburbs (p. 1027-1028)

§  What is the result of migration from cites to the suburbs over the last 20 years?


The American Prospect (p. 1033-1034)

§  What environmental worries are most pressing currently in the US?


Discussion Questions:

1.       Refer to the chart on page 976. Why should an increasing national debt be a concern for Americans?  What actions could reduce the debt?

2.      What role do you believe religion should play in politics?  To what degree are you concerned with a government official’s religious convictions?